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Keys for writers 8th edition free download

With its simple tabbing system (five red tabs for the writing process and research, and five gold tabs for sentence-level topics), thorough and concise coverage of grammar, an easy-to-read format, and customizable Key Tabs, KEYS FOR WRITERS is a valuable resource for students in all disciplines throughout their college careers and beyond. It is one that not only keeps pace with writers’ changing needs but also invites use and is easy to use. In addition to a contemporary new design, an entirely new companion website, and a new media-enhanced e-Book, the Sixth Edition features updates and additions including new visuals, more of the book's popular "Source Shots," new student samples, MLA and APA coverage thoroughly revised to reflect their respective organizations' latest standards, and expanded coverage of topics ranging from annotated bibliographies and working with sources to visual arguments. The success of the previous editions of Keys for Writers tells me to keep this handbook’s distinctive navigation and its two (yes, only two) color-coded, numbered, and descriptively labeled rows of tabs; the coaching tone that students see as lively but respectful; and the concise explanations and examples of grammar and style that have guided and delighted many users. This is an extensive and exciting revision of an effective handbook that is deservedly a best-seller! It may takes up to 1-5 minutes before you received it. with Sources 99 Searching for Sources 110 How to Evaluate Sources 126 How to Avoid Plagiarizing 133 How to Use, Integrate, and Document Sources 145 ■ Sentence-Level Issues PART 6 Style: The Five C’s 349 30. Yet Keys for Writers has also changed because both teachers and students have conveyed in person, mailed, and e-mailed invaluable suggestions to help the book keep pace with current trends in writing and be as accurate and timely as a handbook should be. Please note: you need to verify every book you want to send to your Kindle. I am grateful for those shared ideas and am happy to incorporate them. Check your mailbox for the verification email from Amazon Kindle. So you have in your hand a handbook that provides solid instruction and lively examples in an updated design, keeps up with change, insists on authentic examples of student writing, and conveys the challenges of writing for multiple audiences in multiple settings. You can write to me in care of Preface (c/o) Kate Derrick at Cengage Learning, 20 Channel Center Street, Boston, MA 02210. You can write a book review and share your experiences. Ways into Writing 3 Developing Paragraphs and Essays 27 Revising, Editing, and Proofreading 40 Writing and Analyzing Arguments 51 Writing in All Your Courses 80 PART 2 Research/Sources/ Documentation 97 6. Wadsworth has prepared the following expanded summary of what’s new to the sixth edition, a summary of the features that have been hallmarks of this book and that continue in the new edition, and a guide to its comprehensive supplements package, which includes several exciting additions and is described in this Preface beginning on page x. Other readers will always be interested in your opinion of the books you've read. New to the Sixth Edition In addition to a dynamic new design, this edition of Keys for Writers offers the following new coverage and features: 2009 MLA and 2010 APA style updates The MLA documentation coverage reflects significant changes in the new MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Seventh Edition (published in March 2009), and the APA coverage reflects the new Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition (published in July 2009 and in full effect as of January 2010). Whether you've loved the book or not, if you give your honest and detailed thoughts then people will find new books that are right for them. Revised, updated, and expanded coverage of many topics, including annotated bibliographies (9e); scratch and formal outlines (1h); how to use, integrate, and document sources (new chapter 10 in Part 2); and tips for multilingual writers (Part 9). KEY TO THE BOOK ■ Writing Process /Working with Sources PART 1 The Writing Process 1 1. Thoroughly revised coverage of argument as well as design, media, and presentation Maria Jerskey, La Guardia Community College, worked with Ann Raimes to provide thoroughly revised coverage of argumentation in chapter 4, including visual arguments, and academic paper formatting and design using Word for Mac and PC, hardcopy and electronic portfolios, multimedia presentations, and more throughout Part 5. But although the story of this sixth edition is based on dramatic global and technological shifts, I continue to believe that the best handbook is one that students will use. Most of these papers include visuals, a way of communication familiar to most students. First C: Cut 352 Second C: Check for Action 354 Third C: Connect 356 Fourth C: Commit 361 Fifth C: Choose the Best Words 367 Revising for Style: A Student’s Drafts 378 Style Tips 380 PART 7 Common Sentence Problems 381 37. This edition also showcases actual student essays in MLA style (an argument, a literature paper, and an analysis of the cultural symbol of the smiley face), a complete APA paper, and excerpts from a CSE paper and a Chicago paper. Feedback from users has indicated how useful samples of student writing are, so this sixth edition includes authentic student writing from various stages throughout the process—annotated drafts, brainstorming lists, and outlines; a passage annotated and revised for style; a working bibliography; an online portfolio; a studentgenerated Web site; and a student-designed brochure. Illustrating the variety of sources available today, The Key Points box in 12g shows nine different sources for the song “Pray” by Jay-Z, with examples of how to cite each one in a research paper. Research papers often determine a large part of a course grade, so this edition devotes new sections to how to get the most out of Google, advanced searches, and online alerts (7c); finding appropriate visuals (7g); and using bibliographical software, databases, and Word to help keep records and avoid plagiarism (9f). Part 5 has been updated with new visuals, a new sample brochure, new material on multimedia presentations, and more on Power Point. In addition, chapter 21 includes screenshots of Word 2007 for PC and Word 2008 for Mac that illustrate how to insert v vi Preface specific text features in a research paper. Verbs 406 PART 3 MLA Documentation 161 PART 8 Punctuation, Mechanics, 11. The use of technology in academic writing is highlighted, notably in dozens of Tech Notes. Relative Clauses/ Snarls 398 Relative Pronouns 453 41. The eight Source Shots in Parts 3 and 4 display what sources look like when students access them on a page or screen and show how to use the information in a citation list in a paper. However, in keeping with the emphasis on technology in our Internet age, this sixth edition pays more attention to showing how to search online for academic sources, how to cite them accurately, and how to select and use visuals that enliven and dramatize written work. (In chapter 3, a manuscript page from Philip Roth’s novel Patrimony points out dramatically that even professional writers make many changes as they revise their work.) And to follow the tradition of earlier editions, the needs of multilingual writers are taken into account both in Part 9, Writing across Cultures, and throughout in the many Notes for Multilingual Writers. There are still many examples that show how to construct effective sentences, paragraphs, and essays. A Student’s Research Paper, MLA Style 209 Colons 478 53. This handbook still helps students plan and edit their writing and make it fit into academia. This new edition of Keys for Writers aims to help student writers bridge the gap between what they already know and do in their everyday writing and what academic readers, as well as readers in work settings, expect. Recent technological changes and our present-day culture of rapid written communications have certainly made writing less of an unfamiliar and scary enterprise than it was once, but when much is at stake—such as a grade or a promotion at work—the specter of what instructors and bosses expect looms large. Now, for most of us, daily writing is brief, purposeful, and informal, so much so that students facing a formal writing task raise all kinds of questions of what is expected and what to do to meet expectations—especially to get an A! Printed in China 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 13 12 11 10 09 Preface I n these days of texting, tweeting, blogging, e-mailing, posting to Facebook, and firing off IMs, we can all claim to be writers—much more so than when I was a college student and wrote only handwritten letters, an embarrassingly personal diary, and school assignments. Locate your local office at international.cengage.com/region. Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson Education, Ltd. Purchase any of our products at your local college store or at our preferred online store Italics/Underlining 488 PART 4 APA, CSE, and Chicago Documentation 221 14. Library of Congress Control Number: 2009940454 ISBN-10: 0-495-79982-3 ISBN-13: 978-0-495-79982-5 Wadsworth 20 Channel Center Street Boston, MA 02210 USA Cengage Learning is a leading provider of customized learning solutions with office locations around the globe, including Singapore, the United Kingdom, Australia, Mexico, Brazil and Japan. Further permissions questions can be e-mailed to permissionrequest@ For permission to use material from this text or product, submit all requests online at Excerpt from a Student’s Research Paper, CSE Style 268 PART 9 Writing across Cultures 505 59. For product information and technology assistance, contact us at Cengage Learning Customer & Sales Support, 1-800-354-9706. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, Web distribution, information networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Excerpt from a Student’s Research Paper, Chicago Style 285 PART 5 Design, Media, and Presentation 287 21. 24/7 Service and Support Twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week, you have access to downloadable support documentation and our customer support team. Photo Manager: John Hill Cover Designer: Walter Kopec Cover Image: Mark Viker / Getty Images © 2011, 2008, 2005 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Chicago Manual of Style: Endnotes, Footnotes, and Bibliography 273 20. ORIGINALITY CHECKER Powered by Turnitin®, the world’s most widely used plagiarism prevention service, Enhanced In Site’s Originality Checker promotes fairness in the classroom by helping you learn how to cite sources properly. OPEN HERE to learn more about how Enhanced In Site can work for you! For Students • If a printed access card is packaged with this text, log on to Enhanced In Site by using the pin code printed on the card.* • If a printed access card is not packaged with this text, check your local college store, or purchase instant access to Enhanced In Site at Cengage Brain.com, our preferred online store.* * You will also need a class ID and password from your instructor in order to gain access to the appropriate class. This page intentionally left blank This page intentionally left blank Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain United Kingdom • United States Keys for Writers, Sixth Edition Ann Raimes with Maria Jerskey Publisher: Lyn Uhl Acquisitions Editor: Kate Derrick Development Editor: Renee Deljon Senior Assistant Editor: Kelli Strieby Media Editor: Cara Douglass-Graff Marketing Manager: Christina Shea Marketing Coordinator: Ryan Ahern Marketing Communications Manager: Stacey Purviance Content Project Manager: Rosemary Winfield Art Director: Jill Ort Print Buyer: Betsy Donaghey Text Permissions Editor: Margaret Chamberlain Gaston Production Service, Text Design, and Compositor: Nesbitt Graphics, Inc. Challenges for Multilingual Writers 507 Nouns and Articles 520 Verbs and Verb Forms 526 Sen; tence Structure and Word Order 533 Prepositions and Idioms 539 Language Learners’ FAQs 542 19. With this valuable resource, you’ll gain access to multiple sessions to be used either as tutoring services or paper submissions—whichever you need most! You’ll also have access to a variety of activities, including anti-plagiarism tutorials and downloadable grammar podcasts, all designed to help you become a successful and confident writer. PERSONAL TUTOR Personal Tutor’s private tutoring resources provide you with additional assistance and review as you write your papers. When you log on to Enhanced In Site, you gain access to the proven, class-tested capabilities of In Site—such as peer reviewing, electronic paper submission and grading, and originality checking—plus an interactive e-book handbook with an integrated, text-specific workbook and private tutoring resources. You can see multiple versions of a single essay as it evolves from idea to final draft. The articles cover a broad spectrum of disciplines and topics—ideal for every type of research. Insightful writing begins with Enhanced In Site for Composition™. PEER REVIEW TOOLS Peer Review tools allow you to review and respond to your classmates’ work and manage your own paper portfolios online. INFOTRAC® COLLEGE EDITION This powerful online research and learning center offers over 20 million fulltext articles from nearly 6,000 scholarly and popular periodicals. The e-book includes an integrated, text-specific workbook, interactive exercises, a highlighting and note-taking tool, a printing option, and a search tool. RESOURCES FOR WRITERS Resources for Writers offers a variety of ways for you to practice and refine your understanding of key concepts via interactive exercises on grammar and proofreading, anti-plagiarism tutorials, writing and research modules, multimedia activities, and downloadable grammar podcasts. Oral and Multimedia Presentations 339 PART 10 Glossaries 547 65. Glossary of Grammatical Terms 563 Index 575 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning, May not be copied, scanned, or dupl Insightful writing begins with Enh INTERACTIVE E-BOOK HANDBOOK A true-to-page, multimedia e-book handbook provides you with instant access to the reference material most used and needed in the composition course. New Key Points boxes appear throughout the handbook, including one titled “Nine Ways to Document a Jay-Z Song” (CD, MP3 file, LP record, lyrics in print and online, DVD, video, live performance, and video of live performance). As often as possible, continuing Key Points boxes have been revised for even greater concision and improved quick-reference format. More Source Shots, the majority of them new Part 3 (MLA) now includes five of the text’s popular Source Shots, four of them new, including one featuring a government publication, and Part 4 (APA, CSE, and Chicago) now includes three Source Shots, two of them new. vii viii Preface New examples and models for essay outlines (1h); generation of thesis (1f); freewriting (1e); brainstorming (2e); writing and researching in the humanities, arts, and natural sciences (5f, 5g); annotated bibliography entries (9e); a student research paper in MLA style on the topic of the smiley face (chapter 13); a student research paper in APA style on savants (chapter 4); an excerpt from a student’s research paper on the bristlecone pine tree in CSE style; and an excerpt from a student’s research paper on Mondrian in Chicago style. All but one of these student samples include visuals. Continuing Proven Features This text’s intuitive, color-coded two-part organization, laminated tabbed part dividers, customizable Key Tabs®, quick reference features such as Key Points boxes, abundant examples and models, friendly writing style, and uncluttered design continue in the sixth edition, making information easy for student writers to find, understand, and apply. Two rows of color-coded divider tabs The unusual simplicity and clarity of only two rows of tabs make it easy to find information quickly. The first row is red, for writing and research issues; the second row is gold, for sentence-level issues. Unique Key Tabs® Located at the back of the book, the eight blank, Do-It-Yourself (DIY)—customizable and moveable—Key Tab® notecards enable students to bookmark sections of the handbook that they refer to frequently, find relevant to comments on assignments, or otherwise find especially helpful. Thorough coverage of style Keys for Writers continues to devote a full part (Part 6, Style: The Five C’s) to the important area of style, covering sentence- and word-related style issues in a unified presentation. Students (and instructors) simply write their notes on a card and move it to its intended location, inserting it into the binding, with the top of the Key Tab® extending from the top of the book. that information when date of access documenting sources in 19 Feb. The popular coverage advises students in straightforward, memorable fashion to Cut, Check for Action, Connect, Commit, and Choose the Best Words. Practical “Key Points” boxes These handy boxes open or appear within most major sections of the handbook to provide quick-reference summaries of essential information. Thorough, consolidated, and clear coverage of grammar Part 7, Common Sentence Problems, gives students one central place to turn to when they have grammar questions. Sixth edition Key Points boxes include When to Begin a New Paragraph (Part 1); Developing Your Junk Antennae: How to Evaluate Web Sites (Part 2); Guidelines for the MLA List of Works Cited (Part 3); Working with DOIs and URLs (Part 4); Guidelines for College Essay Format (Part 5); Checklist for Word Choice (Part 6); Form of Personal Pronouns (Part 7); Titles: Quotation Marks or Italics/Underlining (Part 8); and Articles at a Preface Glance: Four Basic Questions about a Noun (Part 9). Grammar coverage is not divided confusingly over several parts, as in other handbooks. A complete list of the Key Points boxes is provided on pages 608–609. range, and punctuate title of Web site sponsor of site N. A section on students’ frequently asked grammar questions begins Part 7. Bracketed labels on selected sample citations in all styles These clearly labeled models show at a glance what types of information students need to include print print publication and how to format, arauthor source title of poem information Levine, Philip. Distinctive approach to English as a new language, Englishes, and vernaculars Superior coverage for multilingual writers takes a “difference, not deficit” approach presented within Language and Culture boxes, an extensive Editing Guide to Multilingual Transfer Patterns, an Editing Guide to Vernacular Englishes, and Notes for Multilingual Writers integrated throughout the text. Complete lists of the Language and Culture boxes and Notes for Multilingual Writers are provided on page 609. Helpful tips for using technology Tech Note boxes provide useful ideas and resources for writing, using the Web, and researching with technology. Tech Notes in the sixth edition include “Taking Accessibility Issues and Disabilities into Account,” “Using Google Docs,” and “Exploring Data Visualization Tools.” A complete list of the Tech Notes is provided on page 609. Coverage of writing and communicating throughout and beyond college Keys for Writers prepares students for a range of writing and ix x Preface communicating tasks they may meet in college as well as in the community and the workplace. With many model documents, Web pages, Power Points, tips for oral presentations, and other resources, Part 5 covers writing, communicating, and document design in a range of media for diverse audiences. A Complete Support Package The sixth edition of Keys for Writers is accompanied by a wide array of supplemental resources developed to create the best teaching and learning experience inside as well as outside the classroom, whether that classroom is on campus or online. Enhanced In Site for Keys for Writers, Sixth Edition With Enhanced In Site for Keys for Writers, Sixth Edition, instructors and students gain access to exceptional resources designed to best help students become more successful and confident writers, including access to Personal Tutor, an interactive e-book handbook with an integrated text-specific workbook and tutorials, as well as the proven, class-tested capabilities of Wadsworth’s In Site for Writing and Research TM, which includes electronic peer review, an originality checker powered by Turnitin®, an assignment library, help with common grammar and writing errors, fully integrated discussion boards, and access to Info Trac® College Edition. Additionally, portfolio management gives you the ability to grade papers, run originality reports, and offer feedback in an easy-to-use online course management system, and using In Site’s peer review feature, students can easily review and respond to their classmates’ work. This book’s support package also includes the following materials for instructors and students. Supplemental Resources for Instructors Instructor’s companion Web site ( raimes) Access the password-protected Keys for Writers, Sixth Edition, Web site for instructors to find resources including the handbook’s Instructor’s Resource Manual. The online Instructor’s Preface Resource Manual provides an overview of the handbook and ideas on how to use it, a section on teaching composition to multilingual students, advice on using the Internet both within the composition classroom and throughout the course, diagnostic test handouts on five main areas of grammar, and answers to numbered items in the online exercises. Exercises to accompany Keys for Writers The online exercises cover grammar, punctuation, usage, and style. The workbook combines exercises with clear examples and explanations that supplement the information and exercises found in the sixth edition of Keys for Writers. Supplemental Resources for Students Multimedia e-book for Raimes, Keys for Writers, Sixth Edition An interactive, multimedia e-book provides your students with instant access to the reference material most used and needed in the composition course. The e-book includes interactive exercises, an integrated text-specific workbook, a highlighting and note-taking tool, a printing option, and a search tool. Student’s companion Web site ( raimes) This Web site provides open access to companion learning resources for all aspects of the writing and research processes (including avoiding plagiarism)—such as additional writing samples, templates, exercises, quizzes, and up-to-date Web links. It is also a gateway to premium resources, including the text’s interactive, multimedia e-book and interactive activities, grammar podcasts, and a rich collection of citation examples. Infotrac® College Edition with Info Marks™ Info Trac® College Edition, an online research and learning center, offers over 20 million full-text articles from nearly 6,000 scholarly and popular periodicals. The articles cover a broad spectrum of disciplines and topics—ideal for every type of researcher. Turnitin® This proven online plagiarism-prevention software promotes fairness in the classroom by helping students learn to correctly cite sources and xi xii Preface allowing instructors to check for originality before reading and grading papers. Personal Tutor Access to Personal Tutor’s private tutoring resources provides your students with additional assistance and review as they write their papers. With this valuable resource, students will gain access to multiple sessions to be used either as tutoring services or paper submissions—whichever they need the most. Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate® Dictionary, Eleventh Edition Available only when packaged with a Wadsworth text, the new eleventh edition of America’s best-selling hardcover dictionary merges print, CD-ROM, and Internet-based formats to deliver unprecedented accessibility and flexibility at one affordable price. Dictionary/Thesaurus Available only when packaged with a Wadsworth text, this dictionary and thesaurus is two essential language references in one handy volume. Included are nearly 60,000 alphabetical dictionary entries integrated with more than 13,000 thesaurus entries including extensive synonym lists, as well as abundant example phrases that provide clear and concise word guidance. Ordering options for student supplements are flexible. Please consult your local Cengage Learning sales representative or visit us at more information, including ISBNs; to receive examination copies of any of these instructor or student resources; or for product demonstrations. Print and e-book versions of this text and many of its supplements are available for students to purchase at a discount at Acknowledgments Many thanks go to my coauthor on this edition, Maria Jerskey of La Guardia Community College, City University of New York. She found time in her very hectic schedule of teaching, writing, giving presentations, and being a mom to work on chapter 4 and Part 5. She was a remarkable student in my graduate courses and has since become a dear friend. I feel fortunate to have her working with me on the Keys series of books. We both acknowledge the contributions of Doug Eyman (George Mason University and senior editor of the journal Kairos), whose technological expertise was invaluable. We are both grateful to teachers and students across the country for their feedback and insightful suggestions Preface that led us to rethink material in the book. Thanks again, too, to Tony Doyle, Hunter College librarian, for helping with finding successful student essays to include in this book. I have always made a point of using authentic student writing in my handbooks. For giving me permission to use their work, I offer many thanks to the following, all of whom were responsive, helpful, and a pleasure to work with: Dana Alogna, Tiffany Brattina, Brian Cortijo, Yulanda Croasdale, Andrew Dillon, Mara Lee Kornberg, Charles Mak, Lynn Mc Carthy, Juana Mere, Maria Saparauskaite, Daniel Sauve, Jennifer Richards, Catherine Turnbull, Jared Whittemore, Natasha Williams, and Jimmy Wong. The following composition instructors were instrumental in suggesting changes in this new edition. I am grateful to them for sharing their wisdom and experience in detailed reviews: Candace Boeck, San Diego State University Stephen Byars, University of South Carolina Amber Carini, San Diego State University Kathy Ford, Lakeland Community College Janet Gerstner, San Juan College Marshall Kitchens, Oakland University Mary Nagler, Oakland Community College Paul Walker, Murray State University I am also grateful to the following dedicated instructors who completed a helpful survey: Jennifer Banning, Illinois State University; Richard Beighey, Community College of Allegheny County—North Campus; Christina Pinkston Betts, Hampton University; Linda Brender, Macomb Community College; Fahamisha Patricia Brown, Metropolitan College of New York; Vincent Bruckert, Wright College; Sherry Cisler, Arizona State University; Gene Crutsinger, Tiffin University; Amie Doughty, State University of New York, Oneonta; Bart Ganzert, Forsyth Technical Community College; Patricia Griffin, Saint Joseph’s University; Leean Hawkins, National Park Community College; Karen Heywood, Stephens College; Clark Iverson, Macomb Community College—Center Campus; Lewis J. Kahler, Mohawk Valley Comunity College; Noel Kinnamon, Mars Hill College; Victoria Lannen, Southwestern College; Chad Littleton, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga; Orit Rabkin, University of Oklahoma; Susan Richardson, Macomb Community College; Michael E. Smith, Western Carolina University; Sandra Van Pelt, Belhaven College; Catherine Vedder, Kentucky State University. xiii xiv Preface In addition I extend my grateful thanks to the following, who helped at earlier stages of composition: Joseph A. Alvarez, Central Piedmont Community College; Akua Duku Anokye, University of Toledo; Jennie Ariail, University of South Carolina; Janet Badia, Marshall University; Pamela J. Balluck, University of Utah; Lona Bassett, Jones County Junior College; Jennifer Beech, Pacific Lutheran University; B. Cole Bennett, Abilene Christian University; Robin A. Benny, Chicago State University; Linda Bergman, Illinois Institute of Technology; Clair Berry, State Technical Institute at Memphis; Curtis W. Boeck, San Diego State University; Darsie Bowden, Western Washington University; Laurie Bower, University of Nevada, Reno; Terry Brown, University of Wisconsin, River Falls; Stephen M. Byars, University of Southern California; Jeffrey P. Cain, Sacred Heart University; Bettina Caluori, De Vry Institute, New Brunswick; Karen A. Carroll, Abilene Christian University; Gina Claywell, Murray State University; Linda Clegg, Cerritos College; Robert Cousins, Utah Valley State College; Ned Cummings, Bryant and Stratton College; Lisa Davidson, Passaic County Community College; Ben Davis, Cuyahoga Community College; Judith Davis, Old Dominion University; Virginia B. De Mers, Ringling School of Art and Design; Rob Dornsife, Creighton University; David A. Fink, Clarion University of Pennsylvania; Murray A. Fortner, Tarrant County College; Katherine Frank, University of Southern Colorado; Muriel Fuqua, Daytona Beach Community College; David W. Hewett, Community College of Baltimore County, Essex; Christopher Z. Furniss, University of Wisconsin, River Falls; Lynée Lewis Gaillet, Georgia State University; Philip Gaines, Montana State University; Dennis Gartner, Frostburg State University; Dorothy Gilbert, California State University, Haywood; Thomas Goodman, University of Miami; Katherine Green, Albuquerque Technical-Vocational Institute; John Gregorian, Contra Costa Community College; Claudia Gresham-Shelton, Stanly Community College; Elizabeth Grubgeld, Oklahoma State University; Keith Gumery, Temple University; Jane E. Hobson, State University of New York, College at Old Westbury; Franklin E. Horowitz, Columbia University; Michael Hricik, Westmoreland City Community College; Margaret Hughes, Butte College; Mary L. Hurst, Cuyahoga Community College; John Hyman, American University; Ernest H. Johnston, El Paso Community College; Karen Jones, St. Charles Community College; Mary Preface Kaye Jordan, Ohio University; Ann Judd, Seward County Community College; Susan Kincaid, Lakeland Community College; Martha Kruse, University of Nebraska, Kearney; Sally Kurtzman, Arapahoe Community College; Joseph La Briola, Sinclair Community College; Lindsay Lewan, Arapahoe Community College; Daniel Lowe, Community College of Allegheny County; Kelly Lowe, Mount Union College; Dianne Luce, Midlands Technical Community College; Mike Mac Key, Community College of Denver; Mary Sue Mac Nealy, The University of Memphis; Gina Maranto, University of Miami; Louis Martin, Elizabethtown College; Jo Anne Liebman Matson, University of Arkansas, Little Rock; Ann Maxham-Kastrinos, Washington State University; Nancy Mc Taggart, Northern Virginia Community College; Michael G. Moran, University of Georgia; Marie Nigro, Lincoln University, Pennsylvania; Carolyn O’Hearn, Pittsburgh State University; Liz Parker, Nashville State Technical Institute; Sally Parr, Ithaca College; Kathy Parrish, Southwestern College; Jane Peterson, Richland College; Lillian Polak, Nassau Community College; Jeffrey Rice, Wayne State University; Nelljean M. Louis Community College at Florissant Valley; Ellen Sostarich, Hocking College; Eleanor Swanson, Regis University; Jami M. Underwood, San Diego State University; Amy Ulmer, Pasadena City College; Jane Mueller Ungari, Robert Morris College; Margaret Urie, University of Nevada; Thomas Villano, Boston University; Brian K. Rice, Coastal Carolina University; Kenneth Risdon, University of Minnesota at Duluth; Mark Rollins, Ohio University; Julia Ruengert, Pensacola Junior College; Cheryl W. Walker, Pulaski Technical College; Colleen Weldele, Palomar College; Barbara Whitehead, Hampton University; Stephen Wilhoit, University of Dayton; Debbie J. Williams, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; James Wilson, La Guardia Community College, City University of New York; Sallie Wolf, Arapahoe Community College; Randell Wolff, Murray State; Martin Wood, University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire; Randal Woodland, University of Michigan, Dearborn; Pamela S. Ruggiero, Virginia Polytechnic Institute; Kristin L. Wright, University of California, San Diego; Pavel Zemliansky, James Madison University; Laura W. The publisher plays a large role in the development and publication of a new edition. Thanks go to Lyn Uhl, Publisher, and Kate Derrick, Acquisitions Editor, for their support and encouragement throughout the process; to Renee Deljon, Development Editor, and xv xvi Preface to Frank Hubert, Copy Editor, for their contributions to the manuscript; and to both Rosemary Winfield, Content Project Manager, and Aaron Downey, Project Manager at Nesbitt Graphics, Inc., for coping so ably with production schedules, snags, and deadlines. Grateful acknowledgments are also due to others on the Keys team for their help and expertise: at Cengage Learning, Kelli Strieby, Jake Zucker, Amy Gibbons, Judy Fifer, and Christina Shea, and all at Nesbitt Graphics, Inc., especially Jerilyn Bockorick and Alisha Webber. And as always, thanks go to my family, who fortunately have the right attitude—that “living well is the best revenge” and that being together, having fun, and eating great meals are the main goals. Throughout the editions of this book, my husband, James, who volunteers to take on many chores, has become a terrific cook. I only hope this edition is as delectable as his dinners. Ann Raimes 1 The Writing Process 1 Ways into Writing 3 2 Developing Paragraphs and Essays 27 3 Revising, Editing, and Proofreading 40 4 Writing and Analyzing Arguments 51 5 Writing in All Your Courses 80 ONLINE RESOURCES Companion online resources are available for sections throughout this part. We invite you to visit the book’s Web site for more information and direct access. PART 1 THE WRITING PROCESS PART PART 1 THE WRITING PROCESS 1–96 PART 1 The Writing Process 1 Ways into Writing 3 1a Writing for readers 3 1b Everyday writing and college 1c 1d 1e 1f 1g 1h 2 writing 4 Reading words and images critically 5 Purpose, audience, voice, and media 8 Ways to generate a topic and ideas 11 Ways to present your thesis or claim 18 Writing with others 23 Tips for drafting and outlining (with sample outlines) 23 Developing Paragraphs and Essays 27 2a Paragraph basics 27 2b Unified paragraphs and topic 2c 2d 2e 3 3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 3f sentences 28 Using transitions and links for coherence 29 Eight examples of paragraph development 31 Writing introductions and conclusions 36 Revising, Editing, and Proofreading 40 Strategies for revising 42 Giving and getting feedback 43 Drafting and revising a title 45 Editing 45 A student’s annotated drafts 46 Proofreading 50 4 Writing and Analyzing Arguments 51 4a Thinking critically about arguments 52 4b Formulating and constructing a good argument 52 4c Structuring an argument essay 53 4d Topic and claim (thesis) 55 4e Supporting a claim with reasons 4f 4g 4h 4i 4j 5 and evidence 59 Four questions for constructing an argument (Toulmin) 61 Appeals, common ground, and opposing views 62 Logical reasoning, logical fallacies 66 Using and analyzing visual arguments 69 Sample paper 1: A student’s argument essay 73 Writing in All Your Courses 80 5a Writing under pressure: Essay exams and short-answer tests 81 5b Writing about literature 82 5c Sample paper 2: A student’s literature paper 87 5d Writing about community service 90 5e Writing and researching across the 5f 5g 5h curriculum 91 Writing and researching in the humanities and arts 92 Writing and researching in the natural sciences (with student samples) 92 Writing and researching in the social sciences 95 1 Ways into Writing 1a Writing for readers Getting started can be hard if you only think of a piece of writing as a permanent document that others can judge you on. A blank page or an empty screen with its blinking cursor can be daunting, but the act of writing offers an advantage over speaking: You can go back and make changes. You are not locked into what you have written until you decide to turn your finished work over to readers. You can also present whatever image of yourself you choose. As journalist Adam Gopnik says fondly of writing, “It’s you there, but not quite you.” One of the pleasures of writing is taking advantage of that freedom. You’re a writer, yes, but you’re also a reader and critical thinker, a participant in the formation of ideas and reactions to ideas, and an analyzer of the many kinds of texts (written, visual, auditory) produced by others. What you write is influenced by your knowledge and experience and by what you read and learn as you prepare to write. How you write is also influenced by the expectations of the audience you are writing for; while in college, that’s usually academic readers. Academic readers want to know not just what you’ve found in what you’ve read, observed, or experienced but also what you have to say about what you found. After all, regardless of their different knowledge and life experiences, your readers can easily find the exact same books, articles, and Web sites! That means an important question to bear in mind when writing is always this: What is your take on an issue, idea, or event? It’s a good thing then that writing itself helps you have ideas, make connections, and raise questions. That is, in writing, you do not just display what you know; you also discover what you know and think. It’s possible because writing is not a linear or step-bystep procedure but a frequently messy process—a sort of adventure, one that you control but that often surprises you with your own insights as 3 4 1b Everyday Writing and College Writing you progress through the relatively set sequence of several overlapping and recurring activities that comprise the writing process: Planning & Prewriting Presenting Proofreading Revising & Editing Critical thinking Drafting Reading & Feedback Given that most of us multitask as a matter of course in today’s world, what composition scholar Ann Berthoff called the “all-atonceness” of writing will probably be familiar to you. 1b Everyday writing and college writing Academic writing such as reports, essays, research papers and everyday writing such as letters, lists, and online messages are genres, or types, of writing. Other genres include creative writing (novels, poems, etc.) and business writing (memos, proposals, etc.). An awareness of the genre of writing you’re working in is important because it is tightly tied to your purpose for writing, your understanding of the audience for your writing, the voice or tone you use, and the medium through which you present your writing. It puts your writing task into perspective and often dictates a set of conventions, both of which may make it seem more manageable and even save you time. What makes academic writing different from the everyday writing we do when we fill out a form, compose a letter to an elected official, text or e-mail friends, post comments on Twitter or Facebook, or post a blog online? Essentially, writing for college involves more of everything: more time, more thought, more knowledge, more revision, more care, more attention to your readers’ formal expectations. Your everyday correspondents generally don’t care about your spelling, punctuation, or even your phrasing. Your online or texted messages are ephemeral, read quickly and deleted. But more is at stake with college writing—in a word, grades! Nobody grades your online messages, but an essay for a college course dashed off in a short time will likely earn you a D. Reading Words and Images Critically 1c All writers need to pay attention to conventions—the customs associated with a genre. The following passage shows abbreviations, current expressions, shortcuts, and code words that constitute some of the conventions attached to texting and IM conversations: Smiley 123: hey sup? Smiley 123: goin 2 the movies 2nite 2 c iron man Nicagalxoxo: OMG I wanna c that—wut time r u going? Smiley 123: dunno ttyl Students generally know this code from using it in daily life. If that same exchange were written in academic language, it would sound faintly ridiculous. Similarly, there is a code for academic writing, which leads to very different and more formal texts. The later chapters in this book will help you become familiar with the conventions for academic writing. However, while the worlds are different, they are not entirely distinct. Using the spontaneity, immediacy, and desire to get an idea across to a real reader will always stand you in good stead in college writing. 1c Reading words and images critically When we read and write, we engage in a process of locating and entering an ongoing discussion about an issue, examining critically the ideas expressed by others and asking questions about those ideas. .” as we read—either saying it in our head or writing it in the text or in our notes. For example, we may find ourselves nodding and agreeing with or even admiring a text or an image. This marks our entry into the swirl of ideas around the topic. As we read, we scrutinize the ideas we find and adjust our own ideas accordingly. During the process of writing, we think critically about our own position and the positions others take. That critical thinking helps shape our writing, and then others can respond to what we write and continue the conversation. Thinking critically does not mean criticizing others. .” 5 6 1c Reading Words and Images Critically Looking at the following image, for example, may prompt several questions: Brooklyn street scene, April 2009. Instead, it means questioning, discussing, and looking from a number of sides at what others say in their words and images, as when we respond mentally to what we hear, see, or read with reactions like, “Well, yes, but,” “On the other hand,” or even “No way.” It also means looking for points of connection and agreement with someone else’s views, responses such as, “I agree” and “In addition . ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Why did the photographer choose to photograph this scene? Was the writing on the newspaper box important to the photographer? What are the white objects that appear to be the photo’s focal point? What, if any, social implications does the scene have? What does the scene suggest about the neighborhood? When was this photo taken, and why aren’t any people in it? Reflecting on these or similar questions constitutes critical reading of this image. For more on thinking critically about arguments, see 4a. See 4i for more on using visual arguments in a paper. Does the writer even take opposing views into account? Write comments and questions in the margins of a page, between the lines in an online document saved to your word processor, on a blog, or on self-stick notes. KEY POINTS ■ How to Be a Critical Reader of Text and Images Do close readings. What interesting information does the writer or creator provide—and is it convincing? In this way, you start a conversation with anything you read. Read more than once; examine a text or an image slowly and carefully, immersing yourself in the work and annotating to record your reactions. If you have made the text you are reading look messy, that’s a good sign. Reading Words and Images Critically 1c ■ Look for common ground. ■ Remember that readers will read critically what you write. Be aware that your own writing has to stand up to readers’ careful scrutiny and challenge, too. Note where you nod in approval at points made in the text or image. Critical reading in action: A “conversation” with a text While reading the following passage about the Ultimatum Game, a student annotates the passage as she reads it. Her comments, questions, and challenges establish her role in the conversation about fair play. Text not available due to copyright restrictions 7 8 1d Purpose, Audience, Voice, and Media Text not available due to copyright restrictions 1d Purpose, audience, voice, and media The genre of writing you are undertaking influences your purpose, audience, voice, and often the delivery medium you choose. Your purpose Ask yourself what is your main purpose for writing in a particular writing situation, beyond aiming for an A in the course! Here are some possibilities: ■ to explain an idea or theory or explore a question (expository writing) ■ to report on a process, an experiment, or lab results (technical or scientific writing) ■ to provide a status update on a project at work (business writing) ■ to persuade readers to understand your point of view, change their minds, or take action (persuasive or argumentative writing) ■ to record and reflect on your own experiences and feelings (expressive writing) ■ to create a work of art such as a play or short story (creative writing) The purpose of your writing will determine your ways of presenting your final text. Formal academic writing generally concerns the first four purposes just listed, and less formal, more personal writing concerns the last two. Your audience A good writer keeps readers in mind at all times, as if in face-to-face communication. Achieving this connection, however, often proves challenging because not all readers have the same characteristics. Readers come from different parts of the world, regions, communities, ethnic groups, organizations, and academic disciplines, all with their own linguistic and rhetorical conventions. Purpose, Audience, Voice, and Media 1d This means that “you” as a writer have several shifting selves depending on your audience. In other words, you write differently when you text a friend, present yourself on My Space or Facebook, post a blog, write an essay for a college instructor, or apply for a grant, an internship, or a job. For success in academic writing, consider the questions in the Language and Culture box. LANGUAGE AND CULTURE ■ Assessing Your Readers’ Expectations What readers do you envision for your writing? Write a list of what those readers will expect in terms of length, format, date of delivery, use of technical terms, and formality of language. ■ Which characteristics do you share with your readers? Consider for example nationality, culture, race, class, ethnicity, gender, profession, interests, and opinions. Write down how any common ground (see 4g for more on this) could influence the style, tone, dialect, words, and details you may use and include. If so, find out about the expectations of readers in his or her academic discipline. In most cases, regard your instructor as a stand-in for an audience of general readers, and ask yourself what background information you need to include for a general reader. T E C H N OT E Taking Accessibility Issues and Disabilities into Account For documents you prepare for online viewers or for oral and multimedia presentations, issues of accessibility are important. ■ Consider whether readers have a dialup or a broadband connection before you post large image files online. ■ For any vision-impaired viewers, increase type size, provide a zoom function, and limit the number of visuals or describe them in words. Contrasting shades work better for some viewers than different colors. ■ Use online sites such as Web Aim and Bobby to test your documents for accessibility. 9 10 1d Purpose, Audience, Voice, and Media Your voice Academic writing, as well as business writing and news reporting, is characterized by an unobtrusive voice. The writer is obviously there, having confronted ideas and sources and come up with what to say about them, avoiding slang, contractions, and personal references. However, the person behind the paper does not need to come across as cute or aggressive or extreme but rather as someone who knows what he or she is writing about and expresses the ideas with an authority that impresses the reader. Your voice in writing is how you come across to readers. What impression do you want them to form of you as a person, of your values and opinions? One of the first considerations is whether you want to draw attention to your opinions as the writer by using the first person pronoun “I” or whether you will try the seemingly more objective approach of keeping that “I” at a distance. Even if you do the latter, though, as is often recommended for academic and especially for scientific writing, readers will still see you behind your words. Professor Glen Mc Clish at San Diego State University has pointed out how the voice—and consequently, the effect—of a text such as the one below changes significantly when the first fourteen words, including the first person pronouns, are omitted: In the first section of my paper, I want to make the point that the spread of technology is damaging personal relationships. The I phrases may be removed to make the sentence seemingly more objective and less wordy. However, the voice also changes: What remains becomes more forceful, proffered confidently as fact rather than as personal opinion. LANGUAGE AND CULTURE Using “I” in Academic Writing When readers read for information, it is the information that appeals to them, not the personality of the writer. Views differ on whether “I” should be used in academic writing, and if so, how much it should be used. An online document with hyperlinks, images, sound, or video? Scholarly journals in the humanities some forty years ago used to edit out uses of “I.” Not any more. A presentation of your work using the bells and whistles available in presentation software, such as bulleted items appearing one by one or flying onto the screen? In the sciences and social sciences, however, an objective voice is still preferred. As you work through the process of choosing and developing a topic (1e) for a defined purpose and audience, consider simultaneously the communication means available to you, especially if you are presenting your work online or with the help of presentation software. To be safe, always ask your instructor whether you can use “I.” Ways to Generate a Topic and Ideas 1e However, even if the word “I” never appears in a college research paper, beware of the leaden effect of using I-avoiding phrases such as “it would seem” or “it is to be expected that” and of overusing the pronoun “one.” William Zinsser in On Writing Well points out that “good writers are visible just behind their words,” conveying as they write “a sense of I-ness.” He advises at least thinking “I” as you write your first draft, maybe even writing it, and then editing it out later. Always bear in mind how you can enhance your ideas with the design of your document and the use of images, graphs, or multimedia tools (covered in chapters 21, 22, 24, 26, and 29). 1e Ways to generate a topic and ideas Whether you have to generate your own idea for a topic or have had a topic assigned, you need strategies other than staring at the ceiling or waiting for inspiration to fly in through the window. ” Diane Ackerman reports that the poet Dame Edith Sitwell used to lie in an open coffin, French novelist Colette picked fleas from her cat, statesman Benjamin Franklin soaked in the bathtub, and German dramatist Friedrich Schiller sniffed rotten apples stored in his desk. Professional writers use a variety of prewriting techniques to generate ideas at various stages of the process. Perhaps you have developed your own original approach to generating the mess of ideas that will help you write a draft. Perhaps you were taught a more formal way to begin a writing project, such as by constructing an outline. If what you do now does not seem to 11 12 1e Ways to Generate a Topic and Ideas produce good results, or if you are ready for a change, try some of the following methods and see how they work. Generating a topic “What on earth am I going to write about? ” is a question frequently voiced or at least thought, especially when students are free to write about any topic that interests them. The strategies in this section will help you find topics. Reflect on issues raised in your college courses; read newspapers and magazines for current issues; consider campus, community, city, state, and nationwide issues; and look at the Library of Congress Subject Headings to get ideas (see also 7e). If you can, begin with an idea that has caught your interest and has some connection to your life. T E C H N OT E Using Web Directories to Find a Topic Academic Web directories assembled by librarians and academic institutions provide reliable sources for finding good academic subjects. The Librarians’ Index to the Internet, Academic Info, and Voice of the Shuttle, a University of California at Santa Barbara directory for humanities research, are among the best. and Google offer subject categories such as “Education” or “Science” that you can browse and narrow down to a topic suitable for an essay. They will also include links to sites with bibliographies—a useful start to research. Adapting to an assigned topic that does not interest you This can happen, but don’t panic. First read as much as you can on the topic until something strikes you and captures your interest. You can try taking the opposite point of view from that of one of your sources, challenging the point of view. Ways to Generate a Topic and Ideas 1e T E C H N OT E Web Sites for Generating Ideas and Planning The Purdue University Online Writing Lab and other online resources include information on generating ideas and planning. Or you can set yourself the task of showing readers exactly why the topic has not grabbed people’s interest—maybe the literature and the research have been just too technical or inaccessible? Drawing from journals, blogs, and online conversations Your own daily journal can be far more than a personal diary. Many writers carry a notebook, either paper or electronic, and write in it every day, jotting down observations, references, quotations, questions, notes on events, and ideas about assigned texts or topics, as well as specific pieces of writing in progress. Your journal can also serve as a review for final examinations or essay tests, reminding you of areas of special interest or subjects you did not understand. The double-entry journal provides a formalized way for you to think critically about readings and lectures. Two pages or two columns or open windows in your word processor provide the space for interaction. On the left side, write summaries, quotations, and accounts of readings, lectures, and class discussions. The left side, in short, is devoted to what you read or hear. On the right side, record your own comments, reactions, and questions about the material. In this way, the conversation with sources becomes visual. A blog also gives you the opportunity to think aloud in public. Not only can others read your posting, but they can respond to it as well. A blog is easy to set up by using an automated publishing system. Blogs are posted in reverse chronological order but otherwise function similarly to a writer’s journal, but with responses. The unedited blog entitled “The Life of a Salesman” (p. 14) was posted on a writing course blog site by Tiffany Brattina, a student at Seton Hill University. Here she works out a personal, original, and critical point of view as, after a missed class, she considers an interpretation of the character Willie Loman in Arthur Miller’s play Death of a Salesman. Brattina largely avoids the colloquial nature of instant messaging and informal e-mail and begins to move to the conventions of public discourse suitable for her academic audience, the students in her class. 13 14 1e Ways to Generate a Topic and Ideas A student’s blog on a course site March 16 The Life of a Salesman Ok. In Death of a Salesman we see the end of Willie’s life as a salesman. So, I’m sure during class today everyone talked about how crazy Willie was, and I am the first to agree. He went through his entire life working on the road selling things to buyers, he didn’t know how to do anything else. If a company you worked for your entire life took you off of salary and put you on commission like you were just starting out wouldn’t you feel like you were unworthy? Then there is the fact that Willie and his family didn’t really have any money to their names at all. His kids thought that he was insane and wanted nothing to do with him. Willie kept borrowing money from Charley so that Linda wouldn’t know that he wasn’t getting paid anymore. The people he worked for his entire life turned him away. Willie was old, tired, and worn out and people including his family turned their backs on him. My dad recently went through something very similar at his place of work. The company he worked for came into new management and they tried to put my dad on commission. My dad has major tenure where he works considering he is now 56 and has been working there for 40 years making him the longest member still working at the company. He took the new management to court and won his case. I know that while my dad was going through that time he was a total mess, so seeing my dad I can understand what Willie was going through. Do you feel bad for Willie or do you think he was just a jerk? Posted by Tiffany Brattina at March 16, PM Comments Do you remember Greek Tragedy? I do, and let me say that Willie is the tragic hero. I really felt that there was a chance for him to make something of himself, and couldn’t. I had the feeling that Willie was going to kill himself, but something kept telling me that he was going to get out of the severe skid that he was in. Posted by The Gentle Giant at March 16, PM Never thought of that Jay ... I did feel like he was going to succeed, especially there at the end ... Tiff Posted by Tiffany at March 16, PM Ways to Generate a Topic and Ideas 1e Freewriting If you do not know what to write about or how to approach a broad subject, try doing five to ten minutes of freewriting either on paper or on the computer. 1f Ways to present your thesis or claim You might be given any of the following essay assignments, arranged here from the broadest in scope to the narrowest: ■ a free choice of subject ■ a broad subject area, such as “genetic engineering” or “social networking sites” ■ a focused and specific topic, such as “the city’s plans to build apartments on a landfill” or “the effect of a bad economy on students’ lives” ■ an actual question to answer, such as: “What are the arguments made against same-sex marriage in California? When you freewrite, you let one idea lead to another in free association without concern for correctness. If you cannot think of a word or phrase while you are freewriting, simply write a note to yourself inside square brackets, or put in a symbol such as #. ” or “What are the dangers participants in social networking sites may face? On a computer, use the Search command to find your symbol later, when you can spend more time thinking about the word. ” If you are given a free choice of subject, you will need to narrow your focus to a specific subject area, to a topic, or to a question. Jimmy Wong did some unedited freewriting on the topic of uniforms (an excerpt from a classmate’s paper appears in 3e): When I think of uniforms I think of Derek Jeter and A-Rod and how cool they look as they leap for a baseball, spin around and throw it straight to first to get someone out. I’d say not, but it probably adds a lot of other stuff. After that, still more narrowing is necessary to formulate a thesis. Baseball is a team game so a uniform can work as a reminder that the game is about the team winning, not just one player scoring well and earning a place in the Hall of Fame. 17 18 1f Ways to Present Your Thesis or Claim  The evidence that X presents for her views could be interpreted differently: . KEY POINTS Subject, Topic, Question, Thesis: A Continuum Level 1 Broad subject area Level 2 Topic for exploration within that subject area Level 3 Key question that concerns you Level 4 Your thesis. Just this short piece, done very quickly, gave Wong an indication that he could develop a piece of writing focused on the unity-building effect that uniforms can have on those wearing them and on outsiders. , I immediately think of a very different example: . Often you need to do a great deal of reading and writing before you get to this point. Brainstorming Another way to generate ideas is by brainstorming— making a freewheeling list of ideas as you think of them. Ways to Present Your Thesis or Claim 1f Your thesis, or claim, is your statement of opinion, main idea, or message that unifies your piece of writing, makes a connection between you and the subject area, lets your reader know where you stand in relation to the topic, and responds to the question posed. Brainstorming is enhanced if you do it collaboratively in a group, discussing and then listing your ideas (see also 1g, Writing with others). From subject to topic to thesis After analyzing some readings, discussing Web sites, and making notes, students were given the task of working together in groups to formulate a progression from subject to thesis. You can then, by yourself or with the group, scrutinize the ideas, arrange them, reorganize them, and add to or eliminate them. This is what one group produced: Subject: Social networking spaces Topic: Use of Facebook and My Space by teens Question: What hazards do teens need to be aware of when they enter a social networking site? Before they were assigned a chapter from Uniforms: Why We Are What We Wear by Paul Fussell, a group of students working collaboratively made the following brainstorming list on the topic of what uniforms signify: Pink for girls, blue for boys—perpetuating stereotypes Uniforms in parochial schools and in many British schools Men’s suits and ties Uniforms for prisoners and wardens Team uniforms; nurse uniforms Municipal employee uniforms The uniform of fashion—ripped jeans fashionable George Bush and Mission Accomplished Official vs. If you are telling the story of an event, either as a complete essay or as an example in an essay, asking the journalists’ six questions will help you think comprehensively about your topic.  Generally, X makes good points but misses the fact that . Thesis: When teens enter the world of Facebook and other social networking spaces, they may gain friends but they also expose themselves to rejection, ridicule, and worse, to online predators. nonofficial uniforms Advantages of uniforms—but for whom? Using prompts Sometimes, you might find it helpful to use a formal set of directions (known as prompts) to suggest new avenues of inquiry. See 1h for essay outlines that students developed on this topic. 15 16 1e Ways to Generate a Topic and Ideas Keep them in line. Armed services How do we treat uniforms—respect, contempt, pity, indifference? Write down responses to any of the prompts that apply to your topic, and note possibilities for further exploration. If you choose a topic and a question that are too broad, you will find it difficult to generate a thesis with focused ideas and examples. Once the students had made the list, they reviewed it, rejected some items, expanded on others, and grouped items. A topic assigned by your instructor may also include these terms, sometimes in combination. Whenever you find yourself thinking, for instance, “There’s so much to say about social life online that I don’t know where to start,” narrow your topic. Thus, they developed subcategories that led them to possibilities for further exploration and essay organization: Uniforms for spectators Uniforms that command respect Uniforms that mark occupations Fashion as a uniform of social markers—part of an “in-group” Mapping Mapping, also called clustering, is a visual way of generating and connecting ideas. Write your topic in a circle at the center of a page, think of ideas related to the topic, and write those ideas on the page around the central topic. For a writing assignment that asked for a response to a chapter in Paul Fussell’s book Uniforms (see pp. She saw that it indicated several possibilities for topics, such as the increasing casualness of American society and the power of uniforms to both camouflage and identify their wearers. Ways to Generate a Topic and Ideas 1e Using journalists’ questions Journalists check the coverage of their stories by making sure they answer six questions—though not in any set order: Who did it? See 2d for examples of ideas developed in these and other ways. If you begin by choosing a topic and a question that are too narrow, you probably will not find enough material and will end up being repetitive. You may want to change your topic or your question as you discover more information. Look up key words in your topic (like success, identity, ambition, and ethnicity) in the dictionary, and write down the definition you want to use. Define your terms Give examples or facts Think of facts and stories from your reading or experience that relate to your topic. Whenever you feel you have enough material to fill only a page and can’t imagine how you will find more (“What else can I say about my sister’s friend Henry on My Space? Progressing from topic to thesis It is not enough to say, “I am writing about Facebook,” though that may be what you start with. It does not indicate what you might explore about Facebook. Which readers will you regard as your primary audience? Will you be concerned with teens or twenty-somethings or what? Include descriptions Whatever your topic, make your writing more vivid with details about color, light, location, movement, size, shape, sound, taste, and smell. Are you going to address Facebook as a tool for communication or as a fad for teens? As a way for young people to communicate or as a place where predators lurk? In short, work toward considering 19 20 1f Ways to Present Your Thesis or Claim the most important point you want to make about which aspect of a social networking tool and for which readers. Help your reader “see” your topic, such as a person, place, object, or scientific experiment, exactly as you see it. Respond to what you read If you are assigned a response to something you have read, use whichever of the following types of responses seem appropriate to help you evaluate the reading:  When I read X, I think of my own experience . Maybe you will compare Facebook with My Space, or perhaps you will interview parents to get their reactions to their children’s participation. Make comparisons Help your reader understand a topic by describing what it might be similar to and different from. Maybe you will do online and print research to find out the dangers that lurk for teens within social networking sites. For example, how is learning to write like learning to ride a bike—or isn’t it? Or you could explore how the networks provide outlets for students who need an alternative to parental authority. Assess cause and effect Convey information on what causes or produces your topic and what effects or results emerge from it. Whichever road you take, play with your first general idea until it gels more for you and you find something that makes a point you know you can describe, explain, and support. For example, what are the causes and effects of dyslexia? Start drafting what point you want to make, or start with three or four statements that you would like to explore more. Knowing what a thesis statement looks like—and why you need one Suppose someone were to ask you, “What is the main idea that you want to communicate to your reader in your piece of writing? ” The sentence you would give in reply is your thesis statement, also known as a claim. Your claim tells readers what stand you are going to take on a topic. It won’t take you far to say, for instance, “I am interested in writing about social networking sites” if you stop right there and hope that somehow ideas will shoot right out at you. What aspects of the sites interest you and what are the issues? Which readers do you regard as your primary audience? Will you be concerned with the present or the future? What do you intend to propose about the area of social networking you have selected? In short, what point will you end up making and for which readers? You don’t have to know exactly where to put your thesis statement in your essay right now, but having a thesis will focus your thoughts as you read and write. (4d gives more help with the thesis in an argument paper.) A good thesis statement may be one or more of the following: 1. a generalization needing support  Facebook gives students a real reason to write and real readers a reason to read what is written. a strong, thought-provoking, or controversial statement  Even though social networking sites such as Facebook encourage people to write, their practices may actually work against helping students improve their academic writing. a call to action  Students who genuinely want to improve their writing for college and the business world would be well advised to stop participating in IM, Facebook, My Space, and other social networking sites. an analytical statement that sets up the structure of the essay  Social networking sites offer two things that college essays can never offer: a nonthreatening environment and readers who genuinely respond to the ideas writers express. Keep a working thesis in front of you on a self-stick note or an index card as you write your first draft, but be flexible. You can change and narrow your thesis whenever you like. Many readers will expect to discover your point within the introductory paragraphs of an essay, but your thesis may, in fact, not take shape in your mind until you have read, written, and revised a great deal. Sometimes, a clear thesis may not emerge for you until the end of your first draft, pointing the way to the focus and organization of your next draft. KEY POINTS ■ A Good Working Thesis narrows your topic to a single main idea that you want to communicate ■ makes your point clearly and firmly in one sentence or two ■ states not simply a fact but rather an opinion or a summary conclusion from your observation ■ makes a generalization that can be supported by details, facts, and examples within the assigned limitations of time and space ■ stimulates curiosity and interest in readers and prompts them to wonder, “Why do you think that? ” and read on Seeing your thesis as a signpost or indication of where you have been In most academic writing in the humanities and social sciences, a thesis is stated clearly in the essay, usually near the beginning. See your thesis statement as a signpost—both for you as you write your draft and, later, for readers as they read your essay. A clear thesis prepares readers well for the rest of the essay. If you use 21 22 1f Ways to Present Your Thesis or Claim key words from your thesis as you write, you will keep readers focused on your main idea. Sometimes, though, particularly in descriptive, narrative, and informative writing, you may choose to imply your thesis and not explicitly state it. In such a case, you make your thesis clear by the examples, details, and information you include. An essay that details all the beneficial—or harmful—changes to a neighborhood may not need a bald statement that, for example, the South Congress area of Austin has made great strides. You may also choose to state your thesis at the end of your essay instead of the beginning, presenting all the evidence to build a case and then making the thesis act as a climax and logical statement about the outcome of the evidence. On not falling in love with your thesis Many writers begin with a tentative working thesis and then find that they come to a new conclusion at the end of the first draft. If that happens to you, start your second draft by focusing on the thesis that emerged during the writing of the first draft. Be flexible: It’s easier to change a thesis statement to fit new ideas and newly discovered evidence than to find new evidence to fit a new thesis. Note that your final thesis statement should take a firm stand on the issue. Flexibility during the writing process is not the same as indecision in the final product. LANGUAGE AND CULTURE Language, Identity, and the Thesis Statement Often, writers who have developed their writing skills in one language notice distinct differences in the conventions of writing in another language, particularly with respect to the explicit statement of opinion in the thesis. In 1989, when China was more rural than it is now, a Chinese writer, Fan Shen, regarded the explicit thesis statement favored in Western writing as “symbolic of the values of a busy people in an industrialized society, rushing to get things done” (College Composition and Communication [Dec. It is difficult to determine how much of a role one’s culture plays in the way one writes and to separate culture’s role from the roles of gender, socioeconomic status, family background, and education. However, always consider what approaches your anticipated readers are likely to be familiar with and to value. Tips for Drafting and Outlining (with Sample Outlines) 1h 1g Writing with others Writing is not necessarily a solitary process. In the academic or business world, you will often have to work collaboratively with one or more classmates or colleagues. You might be part of a group, team, or committee assigned to draft a proposal or a report. You might be expected to produce a document reflecting the consensus of your section or group. Or you might need to draft and circulate a document and then incorporate into it the comments of many people, as is the case with the student drafts in 3e and in chapter 35. In group settings, make sure that every member of the group contributes. You can do this by assigning each person a set of specific tasks, such as making lists of ideas, drafting, analyzing the draft, revising, editing, assembling visuals, and preparing the final document. Schedule regular meetings, and expect everyone to come with a completed written assignment. For example, ask the member skilled in document design and computer graphics to prepare the visual features of the final document. However, make sure that you work collaboratively only when doing so is expected. An instructor who assigns an essay will not always expect you to work on it with your sister, classmate, or tutor. If collaborative peer groups are encouraged, try using the peer response form in 3b. T E C H N OT E Writing Collaboratively on the Computer Word processing programs and e-mail provide useful tools for collaboration. You can work on a text, make and highlight changes, and attach the revised text to an e-mail message to a colleague, who can then accept or reject the changes. Google Docs also provides a useful tool for working with others, allowing you to upload a document that others can then access, change, and add to. 1h Tips for drafting and outlining (with sample outlines) Drafting Writing provides what speech can never provide: the opportunity to revise your ideas and the way you present them. 23 24 1h Tips for Drafting and Outlining (with Sample Outlines) Writing drafts allows you to work on a piece of writing until it meets your goals. KEY POINTS Tips for Writing Drafts ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Plan the steps and set a schedule (6b). Work backward from the deadline, and assign time in days or hours for each of the following: deciding on a topic, generating ideas, making a scratch outline, writing a draft, getting feedback, analyzing the draft, making large-scale revisions, finding additional material, editing, proofreading, formatting, and printing. Manage “writer’s block.” If you feel yourself suffering from what is called “writer’s block,” try to ignore any self-imposed rigid rules that hinder you, such as, “Always stick with a complete outline,” or “Check everything and edit as you write.” Editing too early may lock you into rigid and unhelpful rules and may prevent you from thinking about ideas and moving forward. Don’t automatically begin by writing the introduction. Write in increments of twenty to thirty minutes to take advantage of momentum. Write your first draft as quickly and fluently as you can and print it triple-spaced. Begin by writing the essay parts for which you already have some specific material. Write notes to yourself in capitals or surrounded by asterisks to remind yourself to add or change something or to do further research. You may find a scratch outline useful to get you started. A formal outline may be helpful as a check on what you have done in an early draft, to see what gaps you need to fill, or what revisions you need to make. Avoid obvious, vague, or empty generalizations (such as “All people have feelings”). Be specific, and include interesting supporting details. Copying a passage from an online site and pasting it into your own document may seem like a good solution when you are facing a looming deadline and surfing for good Web sources. However, the penalties for plagiarism are far worse than those for lateness (see 9a). Tips for Drafting and Outlining (with Sample Outlines) 1h T E C H N OT E Using Comment and Auto Correct Word processing programs have a Comment function that allows you to type notes that appear only on the screen, not in a printout, provided you set the Print options to ignore them. In addition, if you use a term frequently (for example, the phrase “bilingual education”), abbreviate it (as “b.e.”) and use a tool like Auto Correct and Replace to substitute the whole phrase throughout your draft as you type. Outlining Outlining often supports drafting stages of the writing process. Alternatively, in the initial stages of a research project, a purpose statement or a proposal may work better for you than a scratch outline (see 6f). The following table is a guide to two frequently used types of outlines, scratch and formal, with samples following. Using Outlines while Drafting Scratch Outline Formal Outline What it is a rough list of numbered points that you intend to cover in your essay spells out, in order, what points and supportive details you will use to develop your thesis and arranges them to show the overall form and structure of the essay What it helps you do lets you see what ideas you already have, how they connect, what you can do to support and develop them, and what further planning or research you still need to do serves as a check on the logic and completeness of what you have written, revealing any gaps, repetition, or illogical steps in the development of your essay When you use it early in the process and at midpoints if integrating major revisions before you begin to write, but you are likely to find that making an outline with a high level of detail is more feasible after you have written a draft Starting point chosen topic thesis statement 25 26 1h Tips for Drafting and Outlining (with Sample Outlines) Scratch outline One student in a class discussing social networking sites (see 1f, p. The worst danger is probably from people who lurk on the Web looking for people to latch on to and begin a relationship with. 19) made the following scratch outline: Topic: Social networking sites Question: Are there any dangers for subscribers to social networking sites? People get reminded of who they were in the past: the ninth-grade fat kid, the hopeless basketball player, the acned nerd (me! Sex offenders have registered on Facebook and My Space and posted naked pictures (articles in NY Times, Chronicle of Higher Ed., and MSNBC.com). Contact not just in words but in pictures, music, and so on B. Possible thesis: Users face the dangers of rejection, ridicule, and predators. Feelings of rejection and inferiority can occur when people don’t respond to an invitation and do not want to be a friend. Some old friendships get restarted and then fizzle out. Possible directions: The role of school, parents, regulatory agencies; education of teens; monitored registration? The student used only three levels in the following outline, with complete sentences for the first two levels. Friendships can be renewed and new ones can develop and flourish with frequent networking. Networks are worldwide, so they can inform subscribers about making contacts in other countries (for example, the site Couchsurfing) and learning about communities through photo sharing. Networking makes it easy to connect with others sharing the same interests and passions. Networks for hobbies: music, books, athletics, even knitting and crochet (Ravelry site) 2. When the same student began to work on a new draft, however, he developed a more nuanced and more focused thesis. When you create your own outline, be sure you have at least two items in each of the levels: an “a” must have a “b,” for example. Story of Nancy whose so-called “friend” broadcast to everyone the tales of her sexual exploits in high school C. Networks for intellectual pursuits, such as literature, art, politics, environmental issues D. Sites for scientists, language learning, finance 2 Developing Paragraphs and Essays Paragraphs form the building blocks of essays. Note how to structure an outline: Formal outline Main points: I, II, III, etc. Thesis: While dangers may lurk in some major social networking sites, subscribers gain the opportunity to renew old friendships and make new ones, to span the world without paying for travel, to pursue special interests, and to expand business opportunities. Dangers exist, but careful subscribers can avoid them. Subscribers can be discriminating about the people they contact: Classmates they didn’t like in high school are not likely to have changed much. They can immediately sever contact with an old acquaintance who belittles or offends them. They can refuse to continue contact with people they don’t know or are not connected to through others, however harmless they appear at first. Networks provide information about business and career opportunities. 2a Paragraph basics A good paragraph makes a clear point, supports your main idea, and focuses on one topic. Some paragraphs, however, may have more to do with function than with content. They serve to take readers from one 27 28 2b Unified Paragraphs and Topic Sentences point to another, making a connection and offering a smooth transition from one idea to the next. To indicate a new paragraph, indent the first line a half-inch from the left margin or, in business and online documents, begin it at the left margin after a blank line. For introductory and concluding paragraphs, see 2e. To introduce a new point (one that supports the claim or main idea of your essay) 2. To expand on a point already made by offering new examples or evidence 3. To break up a long discussion or description into manageable chunks that are easier to read Both logic and aesthetics dictate when it is time to begin a new paragraph. Think of a paragraph as something that gathers together in one place ideas that connect to each other and to the main purpose of the piece of writing. 2b Unified paragraphs and topic sentences Just as a thesis statement helps readers of an essay keep your main idea in mind, a topic sentence in a body paragraph lets readers know explicitly what the main idea of the paragraph is. Readers should notice a logical flow of ideas as they read through a paragraph and as they move from one paragraph to another through an essay. When you write a paragraph, imagine a reader saying, “Look, I don’t have time to read all this. Just tell me in one sentence (or two) what point you are making here.” Your reply would express your main point. Each paragraph in an academic essay generally contains a controlling idea expressed in a sentence (called a topic sentence) and does not digress or switch topics in midstream. A unified paragraph, in academic writing, includes one main idea that the rest of the paragraph explains, supports, and develops. The following paragraph is devoted to one broad topic—tennis— but does not follow through on the topic of the trouble that the backhand causes average players (key terms highlighted). What is Grand Slam winner Serena Williams doing in a paragraph about average players? What relevance Using Transitions and Links for Coherence 2c does her powerful serve have to the average player’s problems with a backhand? The writer would do well to revise by cutting out the two sentences about Serena Williams (sentences highlighted). The backhand in tennis causes average weekend players more trouble than other strokes. Even though the swing is natural and free flowing, many players feel intimidated and try to avoid it. Serena Williams, however, has a great backhand, and she often wins difficult points with it. When faced by a backhand coming at them across the net, midlevel players can’t seem to get their feet and body in the best position. They tend to run around the ball or forget the swing and give the ball a little poke, praying that it will not only reach but also go over the net. Where to put the topic sentence When placed first, as it is in the paragraph on the troublesome backhand, a topic sentence makes a generalization and serves as a reference point for the rest of the information in the paragraph. When placed after one or two other sentences, the topic sentence focuses the details and directs readers’ attention to the main idea. When placed at the end of the paragraph, the topic sentence serves to summarize or draw conclusions from the details that precede it. Some paragraphs, such as the short ones typical of newspaper writing or the one-sentence paragraphs that make a quick transition, do not always contain a topic sentence. Sometimes, too, a paragraph contains such clear details that the point is obvious and does not need to be explicitly stated. However, in academic essays, a paragraph in support of your essay’s claim or thesis (main point) will usually be unified and focused on one clear topic, whether or not you state it in a topic sentence. 2c Using transitions and links for coherence However you develop your individual paragraphs, readers expect to move with ease from one sentence to the next and from one paragraph to the next, following a clear flow of argument and logic. When you construct an essay or paragraph, do not force readers to grapple with “grasshopper prose,” which jumps suddenly from one idea to another without obvious connections. Instead, make your writing coherent, with all the parts connecting clearly to one another with transitional expressions, context links, and word links. (See also 40j for examples of the contribution of parallel structures to coherence.) 29 30 2c Using Transitions and Links for Coherence Transitional words and expressions Make clear connections between sentences and between paragraphs either by using explicit connecting words like this, that, these, and those to refer to something mentioned at the end of the previous sentence or paragraph or by using transitional expressions. KEY POINTS Transitional Expressions Adding an idea also, in addition, further, furthermore, moreover Contrasting however, nevertheless, nonetheless, on the other hand, in contrast, still, on the contrary, rather, conversely Providing an alternative instead, alternatively, otherwise Showing similarity similarly, likewise Showing order of time or order of ideas first, second, third (and so on), then, next, later, subsequently, meanwhile, previously, finally Showing result as a result, consequently, therefore, thus, hence, accordingly, for this reason Affirming of course, in fact, certainly, obviously, to be sure, undoubtedly, indeed Giving examples for example, for instance Explaining in other words, that is Adding an aside incidentally, by the way, besides Summarizing in short, generally, overall, all in all, in conclusion For punctuation with transitional expressions, see 47e. Though transitional expressions are useful to connect one sentence to another or one paragraph to another, do not overuse these expressions. Too many of them, used too often, make writing seem heavy and mechanical. Context links A new paragraph introduces a new topic, but that topic should not be entirely separate from what has gone before. If you are writing about the expense of exploring Mars and then switch abruptly to the hazards of climbing Everest, readers will be puzzled. You need to state clearly the connection with the thesis: “Exploration on our own planet can be as hazardous and as financially risky as space exploration.” Eight Examples of Paragraph Development 2d Word links You can also provide coherence by using repeated words or connected words, such as pronouns linked to nouns; words with the same, similar, or opposite meanings; or words linked by context. Note how Deborah Tannen maintains coherence not only by using transitional expressions ( for example, furthermore) but also by repeating words and phrases (blue) and by using certain pronouns (red)—she and her to refer to wife, and they to refer to Greeks. Entire cultures operate on elaborate systems of indirectness. For example, I discovered in a small research project that most Greeks assumed that a wife who asked, “Would you like to go to the party? They felt that she wouldn’t bring it up if she didn’t want to go. Furthermore, they felt, she would not state her preference outright because that would sound like a demand. Indirectness was the appropriate means for communicating her preference. —Deborah Tannen, You Just Don’t Understand 2d Eight examples of paragraph development Whether you are writing a paragraph or an essay, you will do well to keep in mind the image of a skeptical reader always inclined to say something challenging, such as, “Why on earth do you think that? ” or “What could possibly lead you to that conclusion? ” Show your reader that your opinion is well founded and supported by experience, knowledge, logical arguments, the work of experts, or reasoned examples and provide vivid, unique details. Here are illustrations of some rhetorical strategies you can use to develop ideas in paragraphs and essays. They may serve as prompts to help you generate ideas. Give examples Examples that develop a point make writing interesting and informative. Truman (president of the United States 1945–53) as a young boy follows an account of his happy childhood. It begins with a topic sentence that announces the controlling idea: “Yet life had its troubles and woes.” The author then gives examples of some “troubles and woes” that young Harry faced. Beginning with a generalization and supporting it with specific illustrative details is a common method of organizing a paragraph known as deductive organization. On the summer day when his Grandfather Truman died, three-year-old Harry had rushed to the bed to pull at the old man’s beard, trying desperately to wake him. Climbing on a chair afterward, in an attempt to comb his hair 31 32 2d Eight Examples of Paragraph Development in front of a mirror, he toppled over backward and broke his collarbone. Another time he would have choked to death on a peach stone had his mother not responded in a flash and decisively, pushing the stone down his throat with her finger, instead of trying to pull it out. Later, when Grandpa Young [Harry’s mother’s father] lay sick in bed and the little boy approached cautiously to inquire how he was feeling, the old pioneer, fixing him with a wintry stare, said, “How are you feeling? You’re the one I’m worried about.” —David Mc Cullough, Truman In addition, you may decide to illustrate an idea in your text by using a visual image as an example. Tell a story Choose a pattern of organization that readers will easily grasp. Organize the events in a story chronologically so that readers can follow the sequence. In the following paragraph, the writer tells a story that leads to the point that people with disabilities often face ignorance and insensitivity. Note that she uses inductive organization, beginning with background information and the specific details of the story in chronological order and ending with a generalization. Jonathan is an articulate, intelligent, thirty-five-year-old man who has used a wheelchair since he became a paraplegic when he was twenty years old. He recalls taking an able bodied woman out to dinner at a nice restaurant. When the waitress came to take their order, she patronizingly asked his date, “And what would he like to eat for dinner? ” At the end of the meal, the waitress presented Jonathan’s date with the check and thanked her for her patronage. Although it may be hard to believe the insensitivity of the waitress, this incident is not an isolated one. Rather, such an experience is a common one for persons with disabilities. Braithwaite, “Viewing Persons with Disabilities as a Culture” Describe with details appealing to the senses To help readers see and experience what you feel and experience, describe people, places, scenes, and objects by using sensory details that re-create those people, places, scenes, or objects for your readers. In the following paragraph from a memoir about growing up to love food, Ruth Reichl tells how she spent days working at a summer camp in France and thinking about eating. However, she does much more than say, “The food was always delicious” and much more than “I looked forward to the delicious bread, coffee, and morning snacks.” Reichl appeals to our senses of sight, smell, touch, and taste. We get a picture of the Eight Examples of Paragraph Development 2d campers, we smell the baking bread, we see and almost taste the jam, we smell and taste the coffee, and we feel the crustiness of the rolls. When we woke up in the morning the smell of baking bread was wafting through the trees. By the time we had gotten our campers out of bed, their faces washed and their shirts tucked in, the aroma had become maddeningly seductive. We walked into the dining room to devour hot bread slathered with country butter and topped with homemade plum jam so filled with fruit it made each slice look like a tart. —Ruth Reichl, Tender at the Bone: Growing Up at the Table Develop a point by providing facts and statistics The following paragraph supports with facts and statistics the assertion made in its first sentence (the topic sentence) that the North grew more than the South in the years before the Civil War. We stuck our faces into the bowls of café au lait, inhaling the sweet, bitter, peculiarly French fragrance, and Georges or Jean or one of the other male counselors would say, for the hundredth time, “On mange pas comme ça à Paris.” Two hours later we had a “gouter,” a snack of chocolate bars stuffed into fresh, crusty rolls. While southerners tended their fields, the North grew. In 1800, half the nation’s five million people lived in the South. Of the nine largest cities, only New Orleans was located in the lower South. Meanwhile, a tenth of the goods manufactured in America came from southern mills and factories. There were one hundred piano makers in New York alone in 1852. In 1846, there was not a single book publisher in New Orleans; even the city guidebook was printed in Manhattan. Ward, The Civil War: An Illustrated History Here, too, visuals such as tables, charts, and graphs would help present data succinctly and dramatically. Define key terms Sometimes, writers clarify and develop a topic by defining a key term, even if it is not an unusual term. Often, they will explain what class something fits into and how it differs from others in its class; for example, “A duckbilled platypus is a mammal that has webbed feet and lays eggs.” In his book on diaries, Thomas Mallon begins by providing an extended definition of his basic terms. He does not want readers to misunderstand him because they wonder what the differences between a diary and a journal might be. 33 34 2d Eight Examples of Paragraph Development The first thing we should try to get straight is what to call them. “What’s the difference between a diary and a journal? ” is one of the questions people interested in these books ask. They’re both rooted in the idea of dailiness, but perhaps because of journal’s links to the newspaper trade and diary’s to dear, the latter seems more intimate than the former. With its simple tabbing system (five red tabs for the writing process and research, and five gold tabs for sentence-level topics), thorough and concise coverage of grammar, an easy-to-read format, and customizable Key Tabs, KEYS FOR WRITERS is a valuable resource for students in all disciplines throughout their college careers and beyond. It is one that not only keeps pace with writers’ changing needs but also invites use and is easy to use. In addition to a contemporary new design, an entirely new companion website, and a new media-enhanced e-Book, the Sixth Edition features updates and additions including new visuals, more of the book's popular "Source Shots," new student samples, MLA and APA coverage thoroughly revised to reflect their respective organizations' latest standards, and expanded coverage of topics ranging from annotated bibliographies and working with sources to visual arguments. The success of the previous editions of Keys for Writers tells me to keep this handbook’s distinctive navigation and its two (yes, only two) color-coded, numbered, and descriptively labeled rows of tabs; the coaching tone that students see as lively but respectful; and the concise explanations and examples of grammar and style that have guided and delighted many users. This is an extensive and exciting revision of an effective handbook that is deservedly a best-seller! It may takes up to 1-5 minutes before you received it. with Sources 99 Searching for Sources 110 How to Evaluate Sources 126 How to Avoid Plagiarizing 133 How to Use, Integrate, and Document Sources 145 ■ Sentence-Level Issues PART 6 Style: The Five C’s 349 30. Yet Keys for Writers has also changed because both teachers and students have conveyed in person, mailed, and e-mailed invaluable suggestions to help the book keep pace with current trends in writing and be as accurate and timely as a handbook should be. Please note: you need to verify every book you want to send to your Kindle. I am grateful for those shared ideas and am happy to incorporate them. Check your mailbox for the verification email from Amazon Kindle. So you have in your hand a handbook that provides solid instruction and lively examples in an updated design, keeps up with change, insists on authentic examples of student writing, and conveys the challenges of writing for multiple audiences in multiple settings. You can write to me in care of Preface (c/o) Kate Derrick at Cengage Learning, 20 Channel Center Street, Boston, MA 02210. You can write a book review and share your experiences. Ways into Writing 3 Developing Paragraphs and Essays 27 Revising, Editing, and Proofreading 40 Writing and Analyzing Arguments 51 Writing in All Your Courses 80 PART 2 Research/Sources/ Documentation 97 6. Wadsworth has prepared the following expanded summary of what’s new to the sixth edition, a summary of the features that have been hallmarks of this book and that continue in the new edition, and a guide to its comprehensive supplements package, which includes several exciting additions and is described in this Preface beginning on page x. Other readers will always be interested in your opinion of the books you've read. New to the Sixth Edition In addition to a dynamic new design, this edition of Keys for Writers offers the following new coverage and features: 2009 MLA and 2010 APA style updates The MLA documentation coverage reflects significant changes in the new MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Seventh Edition (published in March 2009), and the APA coverage reflects the new Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition (published in July 2009 and in full effect as of January 2010). Whether you've loved the book or not, if you give your honest and detailed thoughts then people will find new books that are right for them. Revised, updated, and expanded coverage of many topics, including annotated bibliographies (9e); scratch and formal outlines (1h); how to use, integrate, and document sources (new chapter 10 in Part 2); and tips for multilingual writers (Part 9). KEY TO THE BOOK ■ Writing Process /Working with Sources PART 1 The Writing Process 1 1. Thoroughly revised coverage of argument as well as design, media, and presentation Maria Jerskey, La Guardia Community College, worked with Ann Raimes to provide thoroughly revised coverage of argumentation in chapter 4, including visual arguments, and academic paper formatting and design using Word for Mac and PC, hardcopy and electronic portfolios, multimedia presentations, and more throughout Part 5. But although the story of this sixth edition is based on dramatic global and technological shifts, I continue to believe that the best handbook is one that students will use. Most of these papers include visuals, a way of communication familiar to most students. First C: Cut 352 Second C: Check for Action 354 Third C: Connect 356 Fourth C: Commit 361 Fifth C: Choose the Best Words 367 Revising for Style: A Student’s Drafts 378 Style Tips 380 PART 7 Common Sentence Problems 381 37. This edition also showcases actual student essays in MLA style (an argument, a literature paper, and an analysis of the cultural symbol of the smiley face), a complete APA paper, and excerpts from a CSE paper and a Chicago paper. Feedback from users has indicated how useful samples of student writing are, so this sixth edition includes authentic student writing from various stages throughout the process—annotated drafts, brainstorming lists, and outlines; a passage annotated and revised for style; a working bibliography; an online portfolio; a studentgenerated Web site; and a student-designed brochure. Illustrating the variety of sources available today, The Key Points box in 12g shows nine different sources for the song “Pray” by Jay-Z, with examples of how to cite each one in a research paper. Research papers often determine a large part of a course grade, so this edition devotes new sections to how to get the most out of Google, advanced searches, and online alerts (7c); finding appropriate visuals (7g); and using bibliographical software, databases, and Word to help keep records and avoid plagiarism (9f). Part 5 has been updated with new visuals, a new sample brochure, new material on multimedia presentations, and more on Power Point. In addition, chapter 21 includes screenshots of Word 2007 for PC and Word 2008 for Mac that illustrate how to insert v vi Preface specific text features in a research paper. Verbs 406 PART 3 MLA Documentation 161 PART 8 Punctuation, Mechanics, 11. The use of technology in academic writing is highlighted, notably in dozens of Tech Notes. Relative Clauses/ Snarls 398 Relative Pronouns 453 41. The eight Source Shots in Parts 3 and 4 display what sources look like when students access them on a page or screen and show how to use the information in a citation list in a paper. However, in keeping with the emphasis on technology in our Internet age, this sixth edition pays more attention to showing how to search online for academic sources, how to cite them accurately, and how to select and use visuals that enliven and dramatize written work. (In chapter 3, a manuscript page from Philip Roth’s novel Patrimony points out dramatically that even professional writers make many changes as they revise their work.) And to follow the tradition of earlier editions, the needs of multilingual writers are taken into account both in Part 9, Writing across Cultures, and throughout in the many Notes for Multilingual Writers. There are still many examples that show how to construct effective sentences, paragraphs, and essays. A Student’s Research Paper, MLA Style 209 Colons 478 53. This handbook still helps students plan and edit their writing and make it fit into academia. This new edition of Keys for Writers aims to help student writers bridge the gap between what they already know and do in their everyday writing and what academic readers, as well as readers in work settings, expect. Recent technological changes and our present-day culture of rapid written communications have certainly made writing less of an unfamiliar and scary enterprise than it was once, but when much is at stake—such as a grade or a promotion at work—the specter of what instructors and bosses expect looms large. Now, for most of us, daily writing is brief, purposeful, and informal, so much so that students facing a formal writing task raise all kinds of questions of what is expected and what to do to meet expectations—especially to get an A! Printed in China 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 13 12 11 10 09 Preface I n these days of texting, tweeting, blogging, e-mailing, posting to Facebook, and firing off IMs, we can all claim to be writers—much more so than when I was a college student and wrote only handwritten letters, an embarrassingly personal diary, and school assignments. Locate your local office at international.cengage.com/region. Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson Education, Ltd. Purchase any of our products at your local college store or at our preferred online store Italics/Underlining 488 PART 4 APA, CSE, and Chicago Documentation 221 14. Library of Congress Control Number: 2009940454 ISBN-10: 0-495-79982-3 ISBN-13: 978-0-495-79982-5 Wadsworth 20 Channel Center Street Boston, MA 02210 USA Cengage Learning is a leading provider of customized learning solutions with office locations around the globe, including Singapore, the United Kingdom, Australia, Mexico, Brazil and Japan. 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Excerpt from a Student’s Research Paper, Chicago Style 285 PART 5 Design, Media, and Presentation 287 21. 24/7 Service and Support Twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week, you have access to downloadable support documentation and our customer support team. Photo Manager: John Hill Cover Designer: Walter Kopec Cover Image: Mark Viker / Getty Images © 2011, 2008, 2005 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Chicago Manual of Style: Endnotes, Footnotes, and Bibliography 273 20. ORIGINALITY CHECKER Powered by Turnitin®, the world’s most widely used plagiarism prevention service, Enhanced In Site’s Originality Checker promotes fairness in the classroom by helping you learn how to cite sources properly. OPEN HERE to learn more about how Enhanced In Site can work for you! 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This page intentionally left blank This page intentionally left blank Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain United Kingdom • United States Keys for Writers, Sixth Edition Ann Raimes with Maria Jerskey Publisher: Lyn Uhl Acquisitions Editor: Kate Derrick Development Editor: Renee Deljon Senior Assistant Editor: Kelli Strieby Media Editor: Cara Douglass-Graff Marketing Manager: Christina Shea Marketing Coordinator: Ryan Ahern Marketing Communications Manager: Stacey Purviance Content Project Manager: Rosemary Winfield Art Director: Jill Ort Print Buyer: Betsy Donaghey Text Permissions Editor: Margaret Chamberlain Gaston Production Service, Text Design, and Compositor: Nesbitt Graphics, Inc. Challenges for Multilingual Writers 507 Nouns and Articles 520 Verbs and Verb Forms 526 Sen; tence Structure and Word Order 533 Prepositions and Idioms 539 Language Learners’ FAQs 542 19. With this valuable resource, you’ll gain access to multiple sessions to be used either as tutoring services or paper submissions—whichever you need most! You’ll also have access to a variety of activities, including anti-plagiarism tutorials and downloadable grammar podcasts, all designed to help you become a successful and confident writer. PERSONAL TUTOR Personal Tutor’s private tutoring resources provide you with additional assistance and review as you write your papers. When you log on to Enhanced In Site, you gain access to the proven, class-tested capabilities of In Site—such as peer reviewing, electronic paper submission and grading, and originality checking—plus an interactive e-book handbook with an integrated, text-specific workbook and private tutoring resources. You can see multiple versions of a single essay as it evolves from idea to final draft. The articles cover a broad spectrum of disciplines and topics—ideal for every type of research. Insightful writing begins with Enhanced In Site for Composition™. PEER REVIEW TOOLS Peer Review tools allow you to review and respond to your classmates’ work and manage your own paper portfolios online. INFOTRAC® COLLEGE EDITION This powerful online research and learning center offers over 20 million fulltext articles from nearly 6,000 scholarly and popular periodicals. The e-book includes an integrated, text-specific workbook, interactive exercises, a highlighting and note-taking tool, a printing option, and a search tool. RESOURCES FOR WRITERS Resources for Writers offers a variety of ways for you to practice and refine your understanding of key concepts via interactive exercises on grammar and proofreading, anti-plagiarism tutorials, writing and research modules, multimedia activities, and downloadable grammar podcasts. Oral and Multimedia Presentations 339 PART 10 Glossaries 547 65. Glossary of Grammatical Terms 563 Index 575 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning, May not be copied, scanned, or dupl Insightful writing begins with Enh INTERACTIVE E-BOOK HANDBOOK A true-to-page, multimedia e-book handbook provides you with instant access to the reference material most used and needed in the composition course. New Key Points boxes appear throughout the handbook, including one titled “Nine Ways to Document a Jay-Z Song” (CD, MP3 file, LP record, lyrics in print and online, DVD, video, live performance, and video of live performance). As often as possible, continuing Key Points boxes have been revised for even greater concision and improved quick-reference format. More Source Shots, the majority of them new Part 3 (MLA) now includes five of the text’s popular Source Shots, four of them new, including one featuring a government publication, and Part 4 (APA, CSE, and Chicago) now includes three Source Shots, two of them new. vii viii Preface New examples and models for essay outlines (1h); generation of thesis (1f); freewriting (1e); brainstorming (2e); writing and researching in the humanities, arts, and natural sciences (5f, 5g); annotated bibliography entries (9e); a student research paper in MLA style on the topic of the smiley face (chapter 13); a student research paper in APA style on savants (chapter 4); an excerpt from a student’s research paper on the bristlecone pine tree in CSE style; and an excerpt from a student’s research paper on Mondrian in Chicago style. All but one of these student samples include visuals. Continuing Proven Features This text’s intuitive, color-coded two-part organization, laminated tabbed part dividers, customizable Key Tabs®, quick reference features such as Key Points boxes, abundant examples and models, friendly writing style, and uncluttered design continue in the sixth edition, making information easy for student writers to find, understand, and apply. Two rows of color-coded divider tabs The unusual simplicity and clarity of only two rows of tabs make it easy to find information quickly. The first row is red, for writing and research issues; the second row is gold, for sentence-level issues. Unique Key Tabs® Located at the back of the book, the eight blank, Do-It-Yourself (DIY)—customizable and moveable—Key Tab® notecards enable students to bookmark sections of the handbook that they refer to frequently, find relevant to comments on assignments, or otherwise find especially helpful. Thorough coverage of style Keys for Writers continues to devote a full part (Part 6, Style: The Five C’s) to the important area of style, covering sentence- and word-related style issues in a unified presentation. Students (and instructors) simply write their notes on a card and move it to its intended location, inserting it into the binding, with the top of the Key Tab® extending from the top of the book. that information when date of access documenting sources in 19 Feb. The popular coverage advises students in straightforward, memorable fashion to Cut, Check for Action, Connect, Commit, and Choose the Best Words. Practical “Key Points” boxes These handy boxes open or appear within most major sections of the handbook to provide quick-reference summaries of essential information. Thorough, consolidated, and clear coverage of grammar Part 7, Common Sentence Problems, gives students one central place to turn to when they have grammar questions. Sixth edition Key Points boxes include When to Begin a New Paragraph (Part 1); Developing Your Junk Antennae: How to Evaluate Web Sites (Part 2); Guidelines for the MLA List of Works Cited (Part 3); Working with DOIs and URLs (Part 4); Guidelines for College Essay Format (Part 5); Checklist for Word Choice (Part 6); Form of Personal Pronouns (Part 7); Titles: Quotation Marks or Italics/Underlining (Part 8); and Articles at a Preface Glance: Four Basic Questions about a Noun (Part 9). Grammar coverage is not divided confusingly over several parts, as in other handbooks. A complete list of the Key Points boxes is provided on pages 608–609. range, and punctuate title of Web site sponsor of site N. A section on students’ frequently asked grammar questions begins Part 7. Bracketed labels on selected sample citations in all styles These clearly labeled models show at a glance what types of information students need to include print print publication and how to format, arauthor source title of poem information Levine, Philip. Distinctive approach to English as a new language, Englishes, and vernaculars Superior coverage for multilingual writers takes a “difference, not deficit” approach presented within Language and Culture boxes, an extensive Editing Guide to Multilingual Transfer Patterns, an Editing Guide to Vernacular Englishes, and Notes for Multilingual Writers integrated throughout the text. Complete lists of the Language and Culture boxes and Notes for Multilingual Writers are provided on page 609. Helpful tips for using technology Tech Note boxes provide useful ideas and resources for writing, using the Web, and researching with technology. Tech Notes in the sixth edition include “Taking Accessibility Issues and Disabilities into Account,” “Using Google Docs,” and “Exploring Data Visualization Tools.” A complete list of the Tech Notes is provided on page 609. Coverage of writing and communicating throughout and beyond college Keys for Writers prepares students for a range of writing and ix x Preface communicating tasks they may meet in college as well as in the community and the workplace. With many model documents, Web pages, Power Points, tips for oral presentations, and other resources, Part 5 covers writing, communicating, and document design in a range of media for diverse audiences. A Complete Support Package The sixth edition of Keys for Writers is accompanied by a wide array of supplemental resources developed to create the best teaching and learning experience inside as well as outside the classroom, whether that classroom is on campus or online. Enhanced In Site for Keys for Writers, Sixth Edition With Enhanced In Site for Keys for Writers, Sixth Edition, instructors and students gain access to exceptional resources designed to best help students become more successful and confident writers, including access to Personal Tutor, an interactive e-book handbook with an integrated text-specific workbook and tutorials, as well as the proven, class-tested capabilities of Wadsworth’s In Site for Writing and Research TM, which includes electronic peer review, an originality checker powered by Turnitin®, an assignment library, help with common grammar and writing errors, fully integrated discussion boards, and access to Info Trac® College Edition. Additionally, portfolio management gives you the ability to grade papers, run originality reports, and offer feedback in an easy-to-use online course management system, and using In Site’s peer review feature, students can easily review and respond to their classmates’ work. This book’s support package also includes the following materials for instructors and students. Supplemental Resources for Instructors Instructor’s companion Web site ( raimes) Access the password-protected Keys for Writers, Sixth Edition, Web site for instructors to find resources including the handbook’s Instructor’s Resource Manual. The online Instructor’s Preface Resource Manual provides an overview of the handbook and ideas on how to use it, a section on teaching composition to multilingual students, advice on using the Internet both within the composition classroom and throughout the course, diagnostic test handouts on five main areas of grammar, and answers to numbered items in the online exercises. Exercises to accompany Keys for Writers The online exercises cover grammar, punctuation, usage, and style. The workbook combines exercises with clear examples and explanations that supplement the information and exercises found in the sixth edition of Keys for Writers. Supplemental Resources for Students Multimedia e-book for Raimes, Keys for Writers, Sixth Edition An interactive, multimedia e-book provides your students with instant access to the reference material most used and needed in the composition course. The e-book includes interactive exercises, an integrated text-specific workbook, a highlighting and note-taking tool, a printing option, and a search tool. Student’s companion Web site ( raimes) This Web site provides open access to companion learning resources for all aspects of the writing and research processes (including avoiding plagiarism)—such as additional writing samples, templates, exercises, quizzes, and up-to-date Web links. It is also a gateway to premium resources, including the text’s interactive, multimedia e-book and interactive activities, grammar podcasts, and a rich collection of citation examples. Infotrac® College Edition with Info Marks™ Info Trac® College Edition, an online research and learning center, offers over 20 million full-text articles from nearly 6,000 scholarly and popular periodicals. The articles cover a broad spectrum of disciplines and topics—ideal for every type of researcher. Turnitin® This proven online plagiarism-prevention software promotes fairness in the classroom by helping students learn to correctly cite sources and xi xii Preface allowing instructors to check for originality before reading and grading papers. Personal Tutor Access to Personal Tutor’s private tutoring resources provides your students with additional assistance and review as they write their papers. With this valuable resource, students will gain access to multiple sessions to be used either as tutoring services or paper submissions—whichever they need the most. Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate® Dictionary, Eleventh Edition Available only when packaged with a Wadsworth text, the new eleventh edition of America’s best-selling hardcover dictionary merges print, CD-ROM, and Internet-based formats to deliver unprecedented accessibility and flexibility at one affordable price. Dictionary/Thesaurus Available only when packaged with a Wadsworth text, this dictionary and thesaurus is two essential language references in one handy volume. Included are nearly 60,000 alphabetical dictionary entries integrated with more than 13,000 thesaurus entries including extensive synonym lists, as well as abundant example phrases that provide clear and concise word guidance. Ordering options for student supplements are flexible. Please consult your local Cengage Learning sales representative or visit us at more information, including ISBNs; to receive examination copies of any of these instructor or student resources; or for product demonstrations. Print and e-book versions of this text and many of its supplements are available for students to purchase at a discount at Acknowledgments Many thanks go to my coauthor on this edition, Maria Jerskey of La Guardia Community College, City University of New York. She found time in her very hectic schedule of teaching, writing, giving presentations, and being a mom to work on chapter 4 and Part 5. She was a remarkable student in my graduate courses and has since become a dear friend. I feel fortunate to have her working with me on the Keys series of books. We both acknowledge the contributions of Doug Eyman (George Mason University and senior editor of the journal Kairos), whose technological expertise was invaluable. We are both grateful to teachers and students across the country for their feedback and insightful suggestions Preface that led us to rethink material in the book. Thanks again, too, to Tony Doyle, Hunter College librarian, for helping with finding successful student essays to include in this book. I have always made a point of using authentic student writing in my handbooks. For giving me permission to use their work, I offer many thanks to the following, all of whom were responsive, helpful, and a pleasure to work with: Dana Alogna, Tiffany Brattina, Brian Cortijo, Yulanda Croasdale, Andrew Dillon, Mara Lee Kornberg, Charles Mak, Lynn Mc Carthy, Juana Mere, Maria Saparauskaite, Daniel Sauve, Jennifer Richards, Catherine Turnbull, Jared Whittemore, Natasha Williams, and Jimmy Wong. The following composition instructors were instrumental in suggesting changes in this new edition. I am grateful to them for sharing their wisdom and experience in detailed reviews: Candace Boeck, San Diego State University Stephen Byars, University of South Carolina Amber Carini, San Diego State University Kathy Ford, Lakeland Community College Janet Gerstner, San Juan College Marshall Kitchens, Oakland University Mary Nagler, Oakland Community College Paul Walker, Murray State University I am also grateful to the following dedicated instructors who completed a helpful survey: Jennifer Banning, Illinois State University; Richard Beighey, Community College of Allegheny County—North Campus; Christina Pinkston Betts, Hampton University; Linda Brender, Macomb Community College; Fahamisha Patricia Brown, Metropolitan College of New York; Vincent Bruckert, Wright College; Sherry Cisler, Arizona State University; Gene Crutsinger, Tiffin University; Amie Doughty, State University of New York, Oneonta; Bart Ganzert, Forsyth Technical Community College; Patricia Griffin, Saint Joseph’s University; Leean Hawkins, National Park Community College; Karen Heywood, Stephens College; Clark Iverson, Macomb Community College—Center Campus; Lewis J. Kahler, Mohawk Valley Comunity College; Noel Kinnamon, Mars Hill College; Victoria Lannen, Southwestern College; Chad Littleton, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga; Orit Rabkin, University of Oklahoma; Susan Richardson, Macomb Community College; Michael E. Smith, Western Carolina University; Sandra Van Pelt, Belhaven College; Catherine Vedder, Kentucky State University. xiii xiv Preface In addition I extend my grateful thanks to the following, who helped at earlier stages of composition: Joseph A. Alvarez, Central Piedmont Community College; Akua Duku Anokye, University of Toledo; Jennie Ariail, University of South Carolina; Janet Badia, Marshall University; Pamela J. Balluck, University of Utah; Lona Bassett, Jones County Junior College; Jennifer Beech, Pacific Lutheran University; B. Cole Bennett, Abilene Christian University; Robin A. Benny, Chicago State University; Linda Bergman, Illinois Institute of Technology; Clair Berry, State Technical Institute at Memphis; Curtis W. Boeck, San Diego State University; Darsie Bowden, Western Washington University; Laurie Bower, University of Nevada, Reno; Terry Brown, University of Wisconsin, River Falls; Stephen M. Byars, University of Southern California; Jeffrey P. Cain, Sacred Heart University; Bettina Caluori, De Vry Institute, New Brunswick; Karen A. Carroll, Abilene Christian University; Gina Claywell, Murray State University; Linda Clegg, Cerritos College; Robert Cousins, Utah Valley State College; Ned Cummings, Bryant and Stratton College; Lisa Davidson, Passaic County Community College; Ben Davis, Cuyahoga Community College; Judith Davis, Old Dominion University; Virginia B. De Mers, Ringling School of Art and Design; Rob Dornsife, Creighton University; David A. Fink, Clarion University of Pennsylvania; Murray A. Fortner, Tarrant County College; Katherine Frank, University of Southern Colorado; Muriel Fuqua, Daytona Beach Community College; David W. Hewett, Community College of Baltimore County, Essex; Christopher Z. Furniss, University of Wisconsin, River Falls; Lynée Lewis Gaillet, Georgia State University; Philip Gaines, Montana State University; Dennis Gartner, Frostburg State University; Dorothy Gilbert, California State University, Haywood; Thomas Goodman, University of Miami; Katherine Green, Albuquerque Technical-Vocational Institute; John Gregorian, Contra Costa Community College; Claudia Gresham-Shelton, Stanly Community College; Elizabeth Grubgeld, Oklahoma State University; Keith Gumery, Temple University; Jane E. Hobson, State University of New York, College at Old Westbury; Franklin E. Horowitz, Columbia University; Michael Hricik, Westmoreland City Community College; Margaret Hughes, Butte College; Mary L. Hurst, Cuyahoga Community College; John Hyman, American University; Ernest H. Johnston, El Paso Community College; Karen Jones, St. Charles Community College; Mary Preface Kaye Jordan, Ohio University; Ann Judd, Seward County Community College; Susan Kincaid, Lakeland Community College; Martha Kruse, University of Nebraska, Kearney; Sally Kurtzman, Arapahoe Community College; Joseph La Briola, Sinclair Community College; Lindsay Lewan, Arapahoe Community College; Daniel Lowe, Community College of Allegheny County; Kelly Lowe, Mount Union College; Dianne Luce, Midlands Technical Community College; Mike Mac Key, Community College of Denver; Mary Sue Mac Nealy, The University of Memphis; Gina Maranto, University of Miami; Louis Martin, Elizabethtown College; Jo Anne Liebman Matson, University of Arkansas, Little Rock; Ann Maxham-Kastrinos, Washington State University; Nancy Mc Taggart, Northern Virginia Community College; Michael G. Moran, University of Georgia; Marie Nigro, Lincoln University, Pennsylvania; Carolyn O’Hearn, Pittsburgh State University; Liz Parker, Nashville State Technical Institute; Sally Parr, Ithaca College; Kathy Parrish, Southwestern College; Jane Peterson, Richland College; Lillian Polak, Nassau Community College; Jeffrey Rice, Wayne State University; Nelljean M. Louis Community College at Florissant Valley; Ellen Sostarich, Hocking College; Eleanor Swanson, Regis University; Jami M. Underwood, San Diego State University; Amy Ulmer, Pasadena City College; Jane Mueller Ungari, Robert Morris College; Margaret Urie, University of Nevada; Thomas Villano, Boston University; Brian K. Rice, Coastal Carolina University; Kenneth Risdon, University of Minnesota at Duluth; Mark Rollins, Ohio University; Julia Ruengert, Pensacola Junior College; Cheryl W. Walker, Pulaski Technical College; Colleen Weldele, Palomar College; Barbara Whitehead, Hampton University; Stephen Wilhoit, University of Dayton; Debbie J. Williams, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; James Wilson, La Guardia Community College, City University of New York; Sallie Wolf, Arapahoe Community College; Randell Wolff, Murray State; Martin Wood, University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire; Randal Woodland, University of Michigan, Dearborn; Pamela S. Ruggiero, Virginia Polytechnic Institute; Kristin L. Wright, University of California, San Diego; Pavel Zemliansky, James Madison University; Laura W. The publisher plays a large role in the development and publication of a new edition. Thanks go to Lyn Uhl, Publisher, and Kate Derrick, Acquisitions Editor, for their support and encouragement throughout the process; to Renee Deljon, Development Editor, and xv xvi Preface to Frank Hubert, Copy Editor, for their contributions to the manuscript; and to both Rosemary Winfield, Content Project Manager, and Aaron Downey, Project Manager at Nesbitt Graphics, Inc., for coping so ably with production schedules, snags, and deadlines. Grateful acknowledgments are also due to others on the Keys team for their help and expertise: at Cengage Learning, Kelli Strieby, Jake Zucker, Amy Gibbons, Judy Fifer, and Christina Shea, and all at Nesbitt Graphics, Inc., especially Jerilyn Bockorick and Alisha Webber. And as always, thanks go to my family, who fortunately have the right attitude—that “living well is the best revenge” and that being together, having fun, and eating great meals are the main goals. Throughout the editions of this book, my husband, James, who volunteers to take on many chores, has become a terrific cook. I only hope this edition is as delectable as his dinners. Ann Raimes 1 The Writing Process 1 Ways into Writing 3 2 Developing Paragraphs and Essays 27 3 Revising, Editing, and Proofreading 40 4 Writing and Analyzing Arguments 51 5 Writing in All Your Courses 80 ONLINE RESOURCES Companion online resources are available for sections throughout this part. We invite you to visit the book’s Web site for more information and direct access. PART 1 THE WRITING PROCESS PART PART 1 THE WRITING PROCESS 1–96 PART 1 The Writing Process 1 Ways into Writing 3 1a Writing for readers 3 1b Everyday writing and college 1c 1d 1e 1f 1g 1h 2 writing 4 Reading words and images critically 5 Purpose, audience, voice, and media 8 Ways to generate a topic and ideas 11 Ways to present your thesis or claim 18 Writing with others 23 Tips for drafting and outlining (with sample outlines) 23 Developing Paragraphs and Essays 27 2a Paragraph basics 27 2b Unified paragraphs and topic 2c 2d 2e 3 3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 3f sentences 28 Using transitions and links for coherence 29 Eight examples of paragraph development 31 Writing introductions and conclusions 36 Revising, Editing, and Proofreading 40 Strategies for revising 42 Giving and getting feedback 43 Drafting and revising a title 45 Editing 45 A student’s annotated drafts 46 Proofreading 50 4 Writing and Analyzing Arguments 51 4a Thinking critically about arguments 52 4b Formulating and constructing a good argument 52 4c Structuring an argument essay 53 4d Topic and claim (thesis) 55 4e Supporting a claim with reasons 4f 4g 4h 4i 4j 5 and evidence 59 Four questions for constructing an argument (Toulmin) 61 Appeals, common ground, and opposing views 62 Logical reasoning, logical fallacies 66 Using and analyzing visual arguments 69 Sample paper 1: A student’s argument essay 73 Writing in All Your Courses 80 5a Writing under pressure: Essay exams and short-answer tests 81 5b Writing about literature 82 5c Sample paper 2: A student’s literature paper 87 5d Writing about community service 90 5e Writing and researching across the 5f 5g 5h curriculum 91 Writing and researching in the humanities and arts 92 Writing and researching in the natural sciences (with student samples) 92 Writing and researching in the social sciences 95 1 Ways into Writing 1a Writing for readers Getting started can be hard if you only think of a piece of writing as a permanent document that others can judge you on. A blank page or an empty screen with its blinking cursor can be daunting, but the act of writing offers an advantage over speaking: You can go back and make changes. You are not locked into what you have written until you decide to turn your finished work over to readers. You can also present whatever image of yourself you choose. As journalist Adam Gopnik says fondly of writing, “It’s you there, but not quite you.” One of the pleasures of writing is taking advantage of that freedom. You’re a writer, yes, but you’re also a reader and critical thinker, a participant in the formation of ideas and reactions to ideas, and an analyzer of the many kinds of texts (written, visual, auditory) produced by others. What you write is influenced by your knowledge and experience and by what you read and learn as you prepare to write. How you write is also influenced by the expectations of the audience you are writing for; while in college, that’s usually academic readers. Academic readers want to know not just what you’ve found in what you’ve read, observed, or experienced but also what you have to say about what you found. After all, regardless of their different knowledge and life experiences, your readers can easily find the exact same books, articles, and Web sites! That means an important question to bear in mind when writing is always this: What is your take on an issue, idea, or event? It’s a good thing then that writing itself helps you have ideas, make connections, and raise questions. That is, in writing, you do not just display what you know; you also discover what you know and think. It’s possible because writing is not a linear or step-bystep procedure but a frequently messy process—a sort of adventure, one that you control but that often surprises you with your own insights as 3 4 1b Everyday Writing and College Writing you progress through the relatively set sequence of several overlapping and recurring activities that comprise the writing process: Planning & Prewriting Presenting Proofreading Revising & Editing Critical thinking Drafting Reading & Feedback Given that most of us multitask as a matter of course in today’s world, what composition scholar Ann Berthoff called the “all-atonceness” of writing will probably be familiar to you. 1b Everyday writing and college writing Academic writing such as reports, essays, research papers and everyday writing such as letters, lists, and online messages are genres, or types, of writing. Other genres include creative writing (novels, poems, etc.) and business writing (memos, proposals, etc.). An awareness of the genre of writing you’re working in is important because it is tightly tied to your purpose for writing, your understanding of the audience for your writing, the voice or tone you use, and the medium through which you present your writing. It puts your writing task into perspective and often dictates a set of conventions, both of which may make it seem more manageable and even save you time. What makes academic writing different from the everyday writing we do when we fill out a form, compose a letter to an elected official, text or e-mail friends, post comments on Twitter or Facebook, or post a blog online? Essentially, writing for college involves more of everything: more time, more thought, more knowledge, more revision, more care, more attention to your readers’ formal expectations. Your everyday correspondents generally don’t care about your spelling, punctuation, or even your phrasing. Your online or texted messages are ephemeral, read quickly and deleted. But more is at stake with college writing—in a word, grades! Nobody grades your online messages, but an essay for a college course dashed off in a short time will likely earn you a D. Reading Words and Images Critically 1c All writers need to pay attention to conventions—the customs associated with a genre. The following passage shows abbreviations, current expressions, shortcuts, and code words that constitute some of the conventions attached to texting and IM conversations: Smiley 123: hey sup? Smiley 123: goin 2 the movies 2nite 2 c iron man Nicagalxoxo: OMG I wanna c that—wut time r u going? Smiley 123: dunno ttyl Students generally know this code from using it in daily life. If that same exchange were written in academic language, it would sound faintly ridiculous. Similarly, there is a code for academic writing, which leads to very different and more formal texts. The later chapters in this book will help you become familiar with the conventions for academic writing. However, while the worlds are different, they are not entirely distinct. Using the spontaneity, immediacy, and desire to get an idea across to a real reader will always stand you in good stead in college writing. 1c Reading words and images critically When we read and write, we engage in a process of locating and entering an ongoing discussion about an issue, examining critically the ideas expressed by others and asking questions about those ideas. .” as we read—either saying it in our head or writing it in the text or in our notes. For example, we may find ourselves nodding and agreeing with or even admiring a text or an image. This marks our entry into the swirl of ideas around the topic. As we read, we scrutinize the ideas we find and adjust our own ideas accordingly. During the process of writing, we think critically about our own position and the positions others take. That critical thinking helps shape our writing, and then others can respond to what we write and continue the conversation. Thinking critically does not mean criticizing others. .” 5 6 1c Reading Words and Images Critically Looking at the following image, for example, may prompt several questions: Brooklyn street scene, April 2009. Instead, it means questioning, discussing, and looking from a number of sides at what others say in their words and images, as when we respond mentally to what we hear, see, or read with reactions like, “Well, yes, but,” “On the other hand,” or even “No way.” It also means looking for points of connection and agreement with someone else’s views, responses such as, “I agree” and “In addition . ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Why did the photographer choose to photograph this scene? Was the writing on the newspaper box important to the photographer? What are the white objects that appear to be the photo’s focal point? What, if any, social implications does the scene have? What does the scene suggest about the neighborhood? When was this photo taken, and why aren’t any people in it? Reflecting on these or similar questions constitutes critical reading of this image. For more on thinking critically about arguments, see 4a. See 4i for more on using visual arguments in a paper. Does the writer even take opposing views into account? Write comments and questions in the margins of a page, between the lines in an online document saved to your word processor, on a blog, or on self-stick notes. KEY POINTS ■ How to Be a Critical Reader of Text and Images Do close readings. What interesting information does the writer or creator provide—and is it convincing? In this way, you start a conversation with anything you read. Read more than once; examine a text or an image slowly and carefully, immersing yourself in the work and annotating to record your reactions. If you have made the text you are reading look messy, that’s a good sign. Reading Words and Images Critically 1c ■ Look for common ground. ■ Remember that readers will read critically what you write. Be aware that your own writing has to stand up to readers’ careful scrutiny and challenge, too. Note where you nod in approval at points made in the text or image. Critical reading in action: A “conversation” with a text While reading the following passage about the Ultimatum Game, a student annotates the passage as she reads it. Her comments, questions, and challenges establish her role in the conversation about fair play. Text not available due to copyright restrictions 7 8 1d Purpose, Audience, Voice, and Media Text not available due to copyright restrictions 1d Purpose, audience, voice, and media The genre of writing you are undertaking influences your purpose, audience, voice, and often the delivery medium you choose. Your purpose Ask yourself what is your main purpose for writing in a particular writing situation, beyond aiming for an A in the course! Here are some possibilities: ■ to explain an idea or theory or explore a question (expository writing) ■ to report on a process, an experiment, or lab results (technical or scientific writing) ■ to provide a status update on a project at work (business writing) ■ to persuade readers to understand your point of view, change their minds, or take action (persuasive or argumentative writing) ■ to record and reflect on your own experiences and feelings (expressive writing) ■ to create a work of art such as a play or short story (creative writing) The purpose of your writing will determine your ways of presenting your final text. Formal academic writing generally concerns the first four purposes just listed, and less formal, more personal writing concerns the last two. Your audience A good writer keeps readers in mind at all times, as if in face-to-face communication. Achieving this connection, however, often proves challenging because not all readers have the same characteristics. Readers come from different parts of the world, regions, communities, ethnic groups, organizations, and academic disciplines, all with their own linguistic and rhetorical conventions. Purpose, Audience, Voice, and Media 1d This means that “you” as a writer have several shifting selves depending on your audience. In other words, you write differently when you text a friend, present yourself on My Space or Facebook, post a blog, write an essay for a college instructor, or apply for a grant, an internship, or a job. For success in academic writing, consider the questions in the Language and Culture box. LANGUAGE AND CULTURE ■ Assessing Your Readers’ Expectations What readers do you envision for your writing? Write a list of what those readers will expect in terms of length, format, date of delivery, use of technical terms, and formality of language. ■ Which characteristics do you share with your readers? Consider for example nationality, culture, race, class, ethnicity, gender, profession, interests, and opinions. Write down how any common ground (see 4g for more on this) could influence the style, tone, dialect, words, and details you may use and include. If so, find out about the expectations of readers in his or her academic discipline. In most cases, regard your instructor as a stand-in for an audience of general readers, and ask yourself what background information you need to include for a general reader. T E C H N OT E Taking Accessibility Issues and Disabilities into Account For documents you prepare for online viewers or for oral and multimedia presentations, issues of accessibility are important. ■ Consider whether readers have a dialup or a broadband connection before you post large image files online. ■ For any vision-impaired viewers, increase type size, provide a zoom function, and limit the number of visuals or describe them in words. Contrasting shades work better for some viewers than different colors. ■ Use online sites such as Web Aim and Bobby to test your documents for accessibility. 9 10 1d Purpose, Audience, Voice, and Media Your voice Academic writing, as well as business writing and news reporting, is characterized by an unobtrusive voice. The writer is obviously there, having confronted ideas and sources and come up with what to say about them, avoiding slang, contractions, and personal references. However, the person behind the paper does not need to come across as cute or aggressive or extreme but rather as someone who knows what he or she is writing about and expresses the ideas with an authority that impresses the reader. Your voice in writing is how you come across to readers. What impression do you want them to form of you as a person, of your values and opinions? One of the first considerations is whether you want to draw attention to your opinions as the writer by using the first person pronoun “I” or whether you will try the seemingly more objective approach of keeping that “I” at a distance. Even if you do the latter, though, as is often recommended for academic and especially for scientific writing, readers will still see you behind your words. Professor Glen Mc Clish at San Diego State University has pointed out how the voice—and consequently, the effect—of a text such as the one below changes significantly when the first fourteen words, including the first person pronouns, are omitted: In the first section of my paper, I want to make the point that the spread of technology is damaging personal relationships. The I phrases may be removed to make the sentence seemingly more objective and less wordy. However, the voice also changes: What remains becomes more forceful, proffered confidently as fact rather than as personal opinion. LANGUAGE AND CULTURE Using “I” in Academic Writing When readers read for information, it is the information that appeals to them, not the personality of the writer. Views differ on whether “I” should be used in academic writing, and if so, how much it should be used. An online document with hyperlinks, images, sound, or video? Scholarly journals in the humanities some forty years ago used to edit out uses of “I.” Not any more. A presentation of your work using the bells and whistles available in presentation software, such as bulleted items appearing one by one or flying onto the screen? In the sciences and social sciences, however, an objective voice is still preferred. As you work through the process of choosing and developing a topic (1e) for a defined purpose and audience, consider simultaneously the communication means available to you, especially if you are presenting your work online or with the help of presentation software. To be safe, always ask your instructor whether you can use “I.” Ways to Generate a Topic and Ideas 1e However, even if the word “I” never appears in a college research paper, beware of the leaden effect of using I-avoiding phrases such as “it would seem” or “it is to be expected that” and of overusing the pronoun “one.” William Zinsser in On Writing Well points out that “good writers are visible just behind their words,” conveying as they write “a sense of I-ness.” He advises at least thinking “I” as you write your first draft, maybe even writing it, and then editing it out later. Always bear in mind how you can enhance your ideas with the design of your document and the use of images, graphs, or multimedia tools (covered in chapters 21, 22, 24, 26, and 29). 1e Ways to generate a topic and ideas Whether you have to generate your own idea for a topic or have had a topic assigned, you need strategies other than staring at the ceiling or waiting for inspiration to fly in through the window. ” Diane Ackerman reports that the poet Dame Edith Sitwell used to lie in an open coffin, French novelist Colette picked fleas from her cat, statesman Benjamin Franklin soaked in the bathtub, and German dramatist Friedrich Schiller sniffed rotten apples stored in his desk. Professional writers use a variety of prewriting techniques to generate ideas at various stages of the process. Perhaps you have developed your own original approach to generating the mess of ideas that will help you write a draft. Perhaps you were taught a more formal way to begin a writing project, such as by constructing an outline. If what you do now does not seem to 11 12 1e Ways to Generate a Topic and Ideas produce good results, or if you are ready for a change, try some of the following methods and see how they work. Generating a topic “What on earth am I going to write about? ” is a question frequently voiced or at least thought, especially when students are free to write about any topic that interests them. The strategies in this section will help you find topics. Reflect on issues raised in your college courses; read newspapers and magazines for current issues; consider campus, community, city, state, and nationwide issues; and look at the Library of Congress Subject Headings to get ideas (see also 7e). If you can, begin with an idea that has caught your interest and has some connection to your life. T E C H N OT E Using Web Directories to Find a Topic Academic Web directories assembled by librarians and academic institutions provide reliable sources for finding good academic subjects. The Librarians’ Index to the Internet, Academic Info, and Voice of the Shuttle, a University of California at Santa Barbara directory for humanities research, are among the best. and Google offer subject categories such as “Education” or “Science” that you can browse and narrow down to a topic suitable for an essay. They will also include links to sites with bibliographies—a useful start to research. Adapting to an assigned topic that does not interest you This can happen, but don’t panic. First read as much as you can on the topic until something strikes you and captures your interest. You can try taking the opposite point of view from that of one of your sources, challenging the point of view. Ways to Generate a Topic and Ideas 1e T E C H N OT E Web Sites for Generating Ideas and Planning The Purdue University Online Writing Lab and other online resources include information on generating ideas and planning. Or you can set yourself the task of showing readers exactly why the topic has not grabbed people’s interest—maybe the literature and the research have been just too technical or inaccessible? Drawing from journals, blogs, and online conversations Your own daily journal can be far more than a personal diary. Many writers carry a notebook, either paper or electronic, and write in it every day, jotting down observations, references, quotations, questions, notes on events, and ideas about assigned texts or topics, as well as specific pieces of writing in progress. Your journal can also serve as a review for final examinations or essay tests, reminding you of areas of special interest or subjects you did not understand. The double-entry journal provides a formalized way for you to think critically about readings and lectures. Two pages or two columns or open windows in your word processor provide the space for interaction. On the left side, write summaries, quotations, and accounts of readings, lectures, and class discussions. The left side, in short, is devoted to what you read or hear. On the right side, record your own comments, reactions, and questions about the material. In this way, the conversation with sources becomes visual. A blog also gives you the opportunity to think aloud in public. Not only can others read your posting, but they can respond to it as well. A blog is easy to set up by using an automated publishing system. Blogs are posted in reverse chronological order but otherwise function similarly to a writer’s journal, but with responses. The unedited blog entitled “The Life of a Salesman” (p. 14) was posted on a writing course blog site by Tiffany Brattina, a student at Seton Hill University. Here she works out a personal, original, and critical point of view as, after a missed class, she considers an interpretation of the character Willie Loman in Arthur Miller’s play Death of a Salesman. Brattina largely avoids the colloquial nature of instant messaging and informal e-mail and begins to move to the conventions of public discourse suitable for her academic audience, the students in her class. 13 14 1e Ways to Generate a Topic and Ideas A student’s blog on a course site March 16 The Life of a Salesman Ok. In Death of a Salesman we see the end of Willie’s life as a salesman. So, I’m sure during class today everyone talked about how crazy Willie was, and I am the first to agree. He went through his entire life working on the road selling things to buyers, he didn’t know how to do anything else. If a company you worked for your entire life took you off of salary and put you on commission like you were just starting out wouldn’t you feel like you were unworthy? Then there is the fact that Willie and his family didn’t really have any money to their names at all. His kids thought that he was insane and wanted nothing to do with him. Willie kept borrowing money from Charley so that Linda wouldn’t know that he wasn’t getting paid anymore. The people he worked for his entire life turned him away. Willie was old, tired, and worn out and people including his family turned their backs on him. My dad recently went through something very similar at his place of work. The company he worked for came into new management and they tried to put my dad on commission. My dad has major tenure where he works considering he is now 56 and has been working there for 40 years making him the longest member still working at the company. He took the new management to court and won his case. I know that while my dad was going through that time he was a total mess, so seeing my dad I can understand what Willie was going through. Do you feel bad for Willie or do you think he was just a jerk? Posted by Tiffany Brattina at March 16, PM Comments Do you remember Greek Tragedy? I do, and let me say that Willie is the tragic hero. I really felt that there was a chance for him to make something of himself, and couldn’t. I had the feeling that Willie was going to kill himself, but something kept telling me that he was going to get out of the severe skid that he was in. Posted by The Gentle Giant at March 16, PM Never thought of that Jay ... I did feel like he was going to succeed, especially there at the end ... Tiff Posted by Tiffany at March 16, PM Ways to Generate a Topic and Ideas 1e Freewriting If you do not know what to write about or how to approach a broad subject, try doing five to ten minutes of freewriting either on paper or on the computer. 1f Ways to present your thesis or claim You might be given any of the following essay assignments, arranged here from the broadest in scope to the narrowest: ■ a free choice of subject ■ a broad subject area, such as “genetic engineering” or “social networking sites” ■ a focused and specific topic, such as “the city’s plans to build apartments on a landfill” or “the effect of a bad economy on students’ lives” ■ an actual question to answer, such as: “What are the arguments made against same-sex marriage in California? When you freewrite, you let one idea lead to another in free association without concern for correctness. If you cannot think of a word or phrase while you are freewriting, simply write a note to yourself inside square brackets, or put in a symbol such as #. ” or “What are the dangers participants in social networking sites may face? On a computer, use the Search command to find your symbol later, when you can spend more time thinking about the word. ” If you are given a free choice of subject, you will need to narrow your focus to a specific subject area, to a topic, or to a question. Jimmy Wong did some unedited freewriting on the topic of uniforms (an excerpt from a classmate’s paper appears in 3e): When I think of uniforms I think of Derek Jeter and A-Rod and how cool they look as they leap for a baseball, spin around and throw it straight to first to get someone out. I’d say not, but it probably adds a lot of other stuff. After that, still more narrowing is necessary to formulate a thesis. Baseball is a team game so a uniform can work as a reminder that the game is about the team winning, not just one player scoring well and earning a place in the Hall of Fame. 17 18 1f Ways to Present Your Thesis or Claim  The evidence that X presents for her views could be interpreted differently: . KEY POINTS Subject, Topic, Question, Thesis: A Continuum Level 1 Broad subject area Level 2 Topic for exploration within that subject area Level 3 Key question that concerns you Level 4 Your thesis. Just this short piece, done very quickly, gave Wong an indication that he could develop a piece of writing focused on the unity-building effect that uniforms can have on those wearing them and on outsiders. , I immediately think of a very different example: . Often you need to do a great deal of reading and writing before you get to this point. Brainstorming Another way to generate ideas is by brainstorming— making a freewheeling list of ideas as you think of them. Ways to Present Your Thesis or Claim 1f Your thesis, or claim, is your statement of opinion, main idea, or message that unifies your piece of writing, makes a connection between you and the subject area, lets your reader know where you stand in relation to the topic, and responds to the question posed. Brainstorming is enhanced if you do it collaboratively in a group, discussing and then listing your ideas (see also 1g, Writing with others). From subject to topic to thesis After analyzing some readings, discussing Web sites, and making notes, students were given the task of working together in groups to formulate a progression from subject to thesis. You can then, by yourself or with the group, scrutinize the ideas, arrange them, reorganize them, and add to or eliminate them. This is what one group produced: Subject: Social networking spaces Topic: Use of Facebook and My Space by teens Question: What hazards do teens need to be aware of when they enter a social networking site? Before they were assigned a chapter from Uniforms: Why We Are What We Wear by Paul Fussell, a group of students working collaboratively made the following brainstorming list on the topic of what uniforms signify: Pink for girls, blue for boys—perpetuating stereotypes Uniforms in parochial schools and in many British schools Men’s suits and ties Uniforms for prisoners and wardens Team uniforms; nurse uniforms Municipal employee uniforms The uniform of fashion—ripped jeans fashionable George Bush and Mission Accomplished Official vs. If you are telling the story of an event, either as a complete essay or as an example in an essay, asking the journalists’ six questions will help you think comprehensively about your topic.  Generally, X makes good points but misses the fact that . Thesis: When teens enter the world of Facebook and other social networking spaces, they may gain friends but they also expose themselves to rejection, ridicule, and worse, to online predators. nonofficial uniforms Advantages of uniforms—but for whom? Using prompts Sometimes, you might find it helpful to use a formal set of directions (known as prompts) to suggest new avenues of inquiry. See 1h for essay outlines that students developed on this topic. 15 16 1e Ways to Generate a Topic and Ideas Keep them in line. Armed services How do we treat uniforms—respect, contempt, pity, indifference? Write down responses to any of the prompts that apply to your topic, and note possibilities for further exploration. If you choose a topic and a question that are too broad, you will find it difficult to generate a thesis with focused ideas and examples. Once the students had made the list, they reviewed it, rejected some items, expanded on others, and grouped items. A topic assigned by your instructor may also include these terms, sometimes in combination. Whenever you find yourself thinking, for instance, “There’s so much to say about social life online that I don’t know where to start,” narrow your topic. Thus, they developed subcategories that led them to possibilities for further exploration and essay organization: Uniforms for spectators Uniforms that command respect Uniforms that mark occupations Fashion as a uniform of social markers—part of an “in-group” Mapping Mapping, also called clustering, is a visual way of generating and connecting ideas. Write your topic in a circle at the center of a page, think of ideas related to the topic, and write those ideas on the page around the central topic. For a writing assignment that asked for a response to a chapter in Paul Fussell’s book Uniforms (see pp. She saw that it indicated several possibilities for topics, such as the increasing casualness of American society and the power of uniforms to both camouflage and identify their wearers. Ways to Generate a Topic and Ideas 1e Using journalists’ questions Journalists check the coverage of their stories by making sure they answer six questions—though not in any set order: Who did it? See 2d for examples of ideas developed in these and other ways. If you begin by choosing a topic and a question that are too narrow, you probably will not find enough material and will end up being repetitive. You may want to change your topic or your question as you discover more information. Look up key words in your topic (like success, identity, ambition, and ethnicity) in the dictionary, and write down the definition you want to use. Define your terms Give examples or facts Think of facts and stories from your reading or experience that relate to your topic. Whenever you feel you have enough material to fill only a page and can’t imagine how you will find more (“What else can I say about my sister’s friend Henry on My Space? Progressing from topic to thesis It is not enough to say, “I am writing about Facebook,” though that may be what you start with. It does not indicate what you might explore about Facebook. Which readers will you regard as your primary audience? Will you be concerned with teens or twenty-somethings or what? Include descriptions Whatever your topic, make your writing more vivid with details about color, light, location, movement, size, shape, sound, taste, and smell. Are you going to address Facebook as a tool for communication or as a fad for teens? As a way for young people to communicate or as a place where predators lurk? In short, work toward considering 19 20 1f Ways to Present Your Thesis or Claim the most important point you want to make about which aspect of a social networking tool and for which readers. Help your reader “see” your topic, such as a person, place, object, or scientific experiment, exactly as you see it. Respond to what you read If you are assigned a response to something you have read, use whichever of the following types of responses seem appropriate to help you evaluate the reading:  When I read X, I think of my own experience . Maybe you will compare Facebook with My Space, or perhaps you will interview parents to get their reactions to their children’s participation. Make comparisons Help your reader understand a topic by describing what it might be similar to and different from. Maybe you will do online and print research to find out the dangers that lurk for teens within social networking sites. For example, how is learning to write like learning to ride a bike—or isn’t it? Or you could explore how the networks provide outlets for students who need an alternative to parental authority. Assess cause and effect Convey information on what causes or produces your topic and what effects or results emerge from it. Whichever road you take, play with your first general idea until it gels more for you and you find something that makes a point you know you can describe, explain, and support. For example, what are the causes and effects of dyslexia? Start drafting what point you want to make, or start with three or four statements that you would like to explore more. Knowing what a thesis statement looks like—and why you need one Suppose someone were to ask you, “What is the main idea that you want to communicate to your reader in your piece of writing? ” The sentence you would give in reply is your thesis statement, also known as a claim. Your claim tells readers what stand you are going to take on a topic. It won’t take you far to say, for instance, “I am interested in writing about social networking sites” if you stop right there and hope that somehow ideas will shoot right out at you. What aspects of the sites interest you and what are the issues? Which readers do you regard as your primary audience? Will you be concerned with the present or the future? What do you intend to propose about the area of social networking you have selected? In short, what point will you end up making and for which readers? You don’t have to know exactly where to put your thesis statement in your essay right now, but having a thesis will focus your thoughts as you read and write. (4d gives more help with the thesis in an argument paper.) A good thesis statement may be one or more of the following: 1. a generalization needing support  Facebook gives students a real reason to write and real readers a reason to read what is written. a strong, thought-provoking, or controversial statement  Even though social networking sites such as Facebook encourage people to write, their practices may actually work against helping students improve their academic writing. a call to action  Students who genuinely want to improve their writing for college and the business world would be well advised to stop participating in IM, Facebook, My Space, and other social networking sites. an analytical statement that sets up the structure of the essay  Social networking sites offer two things that college essays can never offer: a nonthreatening environment and readers who genuinely respond to the ideas writers express. Keep a working thesis in front of you on a self-stick note or an index card as you write your first draft, but be flexible. You can change and narrow your thesis whenever you like. Many readers will expect to discover your point within the introductory paragraphs of an essay, but your thesis may, in fact, not take shape in your mind until you have read, written, and revised a great deal. Sometimes, a clear thesis may not emerge for you until the end of your first draft, pointing the way to the focus and organization of your next draft. KEY POINTS ■ A Good Working Thesis narrows your topic to a single main idea that you want to communicate ■ makes your point clearly and firmly in one sentence or two ■ states not simply a fact but rather an opinion or a summary conclusion from your observation ■ makes a generalization that can be supported by details, facts, and examples within the assigned limitations of time and space ■ stimulates curiosity and interest in readers and prompts them to wonder, “Why do you think that? ” and read on Seeing your thesis as a signpost or indication of where you have been In most academic writing in the humanities and social sciences, a thesis is stated clearly in the essay, usually near the beginning. See your thesis statement as a signpost—both for you as you write your draft and, later, for readers as they read your essay. A clear thesis prepares readers well for the rest of the essay. If you use 21 22 1f Ways to Present Your Thesis or Claim key words from your thesis as you write, you will keep readers focused on your main idea. Sometimes, though, particularly in descriptive, narrative, and informative writing, you may choose to imply your thesis and not explicitly state it. In such a case, you make your thesis clear by the examples, details, and information you include. An essay that details all the beneficial—or harmful—changes to a neighborhood may not need a bald statement that, for example, the South Congress area of Austin has made great strides. You may also choose to state your thesis at the end of your essay instead of the beginning, presenting all the evidence to build a case and then making the thesis act as a climax and logical statement about the outcome of the evidence. On not falling in love with your thesis Many writers begin with a tentative working thesis and then find that they come to a new conclusion at the end of the first draft. If that happens to you, start your second draft by focusing on the thesis that emerged during the writing of the first draft. Be flexible: It’s easier to change a thesis statement to fit new ideas and newly discovered evidence than to find new evidence to fit a new thesis. Note that your final thesis statement should take a firm stand on the issue. Flexibility during the writing process is not the same as indecision in the final product. LANGUAGE AND CULTURE Language, Identity, and the Thesis Statement Often, writers who have developed their writing skills in one language notice distinct differences in the conventions of writing in another language, particularly with respect to the explicit statement of opinion in the thesis. In 1989, when China was more rural than it is now, a Chinese writer, Fan Shen, regarded the explicit thesis statement favored in Western writing as “symbolic of the values of a busy people in an industrialized society, rushing to get things done” (College Composition and Communication [Dec. It is difficult to determine how much of a role one’s culture plays in the way one writes and to separate culture’s role from the roles of gender, socioeconomic status, family background, and education. However, always consider what approaches your anticipated readers are likely to be familiar with and to value. Tips for Drafting and Outlining (with Sample Outlines) 1h 1g Writing with others Writing is not necessarily a solitary process. In the academic or business world, you will often have to work collaboratively with one or more classmates or colleagues. You might be part of a group, team, or committee assigned to draft a proposal or a report. You might be expected to produce a document reflecting the consensus of your section or group. Or you might need to draft and circulate a document and then incorporate into it the comments of many people, as is the case with the student drafts in 3e and in chapter 35. In group settings, make sure that every member of the group contributes. You can do this by assigning each person a set of specific tasks, such as making lists of ideas, drafting, analyzing the draft, revising, editing, assembling visuals, and preparing the final document. Schedule regular meetings, and expect everyone to come with a completed written assignment. For example, ask the member skilled in document design and computer graphics to prepare the visual features of the final document. However, make sure that you work collaboratively only when doing so is expected. An instructor who assigns an essay will not always expect you to work on it with your sister, classmate, or tutor. If collaborative peer groups are encouraged, try using the peer response form in 3b. T E C H N OT E Writing Collaboratively on the Computer Word processing programs and e-mail provide useful tools for collaboration. You can work on a text, make and highlight changes, and attach the revised text to an e-mail message to a colleague, who can then accept or reject the changes. Google Docs also provides a useful tool for working with others, allowing you to upload a document that others can then access, change, and add to. 1h Tips for drafting and outlining (with sample outlines) Drafting Writing provides what speech can never provide: the opportunity to revise your ideas and the way you present them. 23 24 1h Tips for Drafting and Outlining (with Sample Outlines) Writing drafts allows you to work on a piece of writing until it meets your goals. KEY POINTS Tips for Writing Drafts ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Plan the steps and set a schedule (6b). Work backward from the deadline, and assign time in days or hours for each of the following: deciding on a topic, generating ideas, making a scratch outline, writing a draft, getting feedback, analyzing the draft, making large-scale revisions, finding additional material, editing, proofreading, formatting, and printing. Manage “writer’s block.” If you feel yourself suffering from what is called “writer’s block,” try to ignore any self-imposed rigid rules that hinder you, such as, “Always stick with a complete outline,” or “Check everything and edit as you write.” Editing too early may lock you into rigid and unhelpful rules and may prevent you from thinking about ideas and moving forward. Don’t automatically begin by writing the introduction. Write in increments of twenty to thirty minutes to take advantage of momentum. Write your first draft as quickly and fluently as you can and print it triple-spaced. Begin by writing the essay parts for which you already have some specific material. Write notes to yourself in capitals or surrounded by asterisks to remind yourself to add or change something or to do further research. You may find a scratch outline useful to get you started. A formal outline may be helpful as a check on what you have done in an early draft, to see what gaps you need to fill, or what revisions you need to make. Avoid obvious, vague, or empty generalizations (such as “All people have feelings”). Be specific, and include interesting supporting details. Copying a passage from an online site and pasting it into your own document may seem like a good solution when you are facing a looming deadline and surfing for good Web sources. However, the penalties for plagiarism are far worse than those for lateness (see 9a). Tips for Drafting and Outlining (with Sample Outlines) 1h T E C H N OT E Using Comment and Auto Correct Word processing programs have a Comment function that allows you to type notes that appear only on the screen, not in a printout, provided you set the Print options to ignore them. In addition, if you use a term frequently (for example, the phrase “bilingual education”), abbreviate it (as “b.e.”) and use a tool like Auto Correct and Replace to substitute the whole phrase throughout your draft as you type. Outlining Outlining often supports drafting stages of the writing process. Alternatively, in the initial stages of a research project, a purpose statement or a proposal may work better for you than a scratch outline (see 6f). The following table is a guide to two frequently used types of outlines, scratch and formal, with samples following. Using Outlines while Drafting Scratch Outline Formal Outline What it is a rough list of numbered points that you intend to cover in your essay spells out, in order, what points and supportive details you will use to develop your thesis and arranges them to show the overall form and structure of the essay What it helps you do lets you see what ideas you already have, how they connect, what you can do to support and develop them, and what further planning or research you still need to do serves as a check on the logic and completeness of what you have written, revealing any gaps, repetition, or illogical steps in the development of your essay When you use it early in the process and at midpoints if integrating major revisions before you begin to write, but you are likely to find that making an outline with a high level of detail is more feasible after you have written a draft Starting point chosen topic thesis statement 25 26 1h Tips for Drafting and Outlining (with Sample Outlines) Scratch outline One student in a class discussing social networking sites (see 1f, p. The worst danger is probably from people who lurk on the Web looking for people to latch on to and begin a relationship with. 19) made the following scratch outline: Topic: Social networking sites Question: Are there any dangers for subscribers to social networking sites? People get reminded of who they were in the past: the ninth-grade fat kid, the hopeless basketball player, the acned nerd (me! Sex offenders have registered on Facebook and My Space and posted naked pictures (articles in NY Times, Chronicle of Higher Ed., and MSNBC.com). Contact not just in words but in pictures, music, and so on B. Possible thesis: Users face the dangers of rejection, ridicule, and predators. Feelings of rejection and inferiority can occur when people don’t respond to an invitation and do not want to be a friend. Some old friendships get restarted and then fizzle out. Possible directions: The role of school, parents, regulatory agencies; education of teens; monitored registration? The student used only three levels in the following outline, with complete sentences for the first two levels. Friendships can be renewed and new ones can develop and flourish with frequent networking. Networks are worldwide, so they can inform subscribers about making contacts in other countries (for example, the site Couchsurfing) and learning about communities through photo sharing. Networking makes it easy to connect with others sharing the same interests and passions. Networks for hobbies: music, books, athletics, even knitting and crochet (Ravelry site) 2. When the same student began to work on a new draft, however, he developed a more nuanced and more focused thesis. When you create your own outline, be sure you have at least two items in each of the levels: an “a” must have a “b,” for example. Story of Nancy whose so-called “friend” broadcast to everyone the tales of her sexual exploits in high school C. Networks for intellectual pursuits, such as literature, art, politics, environmental issues D. Sites for scientists, language learning, finance 2 Developing Paragraphs and Essays Paragraphs form the building blocks of essays. Note how to structure an outline: Formal outline Main points: I, II, III, etc. Thesis: While dangers may lurk in some major social networking sites, subscribers gain the opportunity to renew old friendships and make new ones, to span the world without paying for travel, to pursue special interests, and to expand business opportunities. Dangers exist, but careful subscribers can avoid them. Subscribers can be discriminating about the people they contact: Classmates they didn’t like in high school are not likely to have changed much. They can immediately sever contact with an old acquaintance who belittles or offends them. They can refuse to continue contact with people they don’t know or are not connected to through others, however harmless they appear at first. Networks provide information about business and career opportunities. 2a Paragraph basics A good paragraph makes a clear point, supports your main idea, and focuses on one topic. Some paragraphs, however, may have more to do with function than with content. They serve to take readers from one 27 28 2b Unified Paragraphs and Topic Sentences point to another, making a connection and offering a smooth transition from one idea to the next. To indicate a new paragraph, indent the first line a half-inch from the left margin or, in business and online documents, begin it at the left margin after a blank line. For introductory and concluding paragraphs, see 2e. To introduce a new point (one that supports the claim or main idea of your essay) 2. To expand on a point already made by offering new examples or evidence 3. To break up a long discussion or description into manageable chunks that are easier to read Both logic and aesthetics dictate when it is time to begin a new paragraph. Think of a paragraph as something that gathers together in one place ideas that connect to each other and to the main purpose of the piece of writing. 2b Unified paragraphs and topic sentences Just as a thesis statement helps readers of an essay keep your main idea in mind, a topic sentence in a body paragraph lets readers know explicitly what the main idea of the paragraph is. Readers should notice a logical flow of ideas as they read through a paragraph and as they move from one paragraph to another through an essay. When you write a paragraph, imagine a reader saying, “Look, I don’t have time to read all this. Just tell me in one sentence (or two) what point you are making here.” Your reply would express your main point. Each paragraph in an academic essay generally contains a controlling idea expressed in a sentence (called a topic sentence) and does not digress or switch topics in midstream. A unified paragraph, in academic writing, includes one main idea that the rest of the paragraph explains, supports, and develops. The following paragraph is devoted to one broad topic—tennis— but does not follow through on the topic of the trouble that the backhand causes average players (key terms highlighted). What is Grand Slam winner Serena Williams doing in a paragraph about average players? What relevance Using Transitions and Links for Coherence 2c does her powerful serve have to the average player’s problems with a backhand? The writer would do well to revise by cutting out the two sentences about Serena Williams (sentences highlighted). The backhand in tennis causes average weekend players more trouble than other strokes. Even though the swing is natural and free flowing, many players feel intimidated and try to avoid it. Serena Williams, however, has a great backhand, and she often wins difficult points with it. When faced by a backhand coming at them across the net, midlevel players can’t seem to get their feet and body in the best position. They tend to run around the ball or forget the swing and give the ball a little poke, praying that it will not only reach but also go over the net. Where to put the topic sentence When placed first, as it is in the paragraph on the troublesome backhand, a topic sentence makes a generalization and serves as a reference point for the rest of the information in the paragraph. When placed after one or two other sentences, the topic sentence focuses the details and directs readers’ attention to the main idea. When placed at the end of the paragraph, the topic sentence serves to summarize or draw conclusions from the details that precede it. Some paragraphs, such as the short ones typical of newspaper writing or the one-sentence paragraphs that make a quick transition, do not always contain a topic sentence. Sometimes, too, a paragraph contains such clear details that the point is obvious and does not need to be explicitly stated. However, in academic essays, a paragraph in support of your essay’s claim or thesis (main point) will usually be unified and focused on one clear topic, whether or not you state it in a topic sentence. 2c Using transitions and links for coherence However you develop your individual paragraphs, readers expect to move with ease from one sentence to the next and from one paragraph to the next, following a clear flow of argument and logic. When you construct an essay or paragraph, do not force readers to grapple with “grasshopper prose,” which jumps suddenly from one idea to another without obvious connections. Instead, make your writing coherent, with all the parts connecting clearly to one another with transitional expressions, context links, and word links. (See also 40j for examples of the contribution of parallel structures to coherence.) 29 30 2c Using Transitions and Links for Coherence Transitional words and expressions Make clear connections between sentences and between paragraphs either by using explicit connecting words like this, that, these, and those to refer to something mentioned at the end of the previous sentence or paragraph or by using transitional expressions. KEY POINTS Transitional Expressions Adding an idea also, in addition, further, furthermore, moreover Contrasting however, nevertheless, nonetheless, on the other hand, in contrast, still, on the contrary, rather, conversely Providing an alternative instead, alternatively, otherwise Showing similarity similarly, likewise Showing order of time or order of ideas first, second, third (and so on), then, next, later, subsequently, meanwhile, previously, finally Showing result as a result, consequently, therefore, thus, hence, accordingly, for this reason Affirming of course, in fact, certainly, obviously, to be sure, undoubtedly, indeed Giving examples for example, for instance Explaining in other words, that is Adding an aside incidentally, by the way, besides Summarizing in short, generally, overall, all in all, in conclusion For punctuation with transitional expressions, see 47e. Though transitional expressions are useful to connect one sentence to another or one paragraph to another, do not overuse these expressions. Too many of them, used too often, make writing seem heavy and mechanical. Context links A new paragraph introduces a new topic, but that topic should not be entirely separate from what has gone before. If you are writing about the expense of exploring Mars and then switch abruptly to the hazards of climbing Everest, readers will be puzzled. You need to state clearly the connection with the thesis: “Exploration on our own planet can be as hazardous and as financially risky as space exploration.” Eight Examples of Paragraph Development 2d Word links You can also provide coherence by using repeated words or connected words, such as pronouns linked to nouns; words with the same, similar, or opposite meanings; or words linked by context. Note how Deborah Tannen maintains coherence not only by using transitional expressions ( for example, furthermore) but also by repeating words and phrases (blue) and by using certain pronouns (red)—she and her to refer to wife, and they to refer to Greeks. Entire cultures operate on elaborate systems of indirectness. For example, I discovered in a small research project that most Greeks assumed that a wife who asked, “Would you like to go to the party? They felt that she wouldn’t bring it up if she didn’t want to go. Furthermore, they felt, she would not state her preference outright because that would sound like a demand. Indirectness was the appropriate means for communicating her preference. —Deborah Tannen, You Just Don’t Understand 2d Eight examples of paragraph development Whether you are writing a paragraph or an essay, you will do well to keep in mind the image of a skeptical reader always inclined to say something challenging, such as, “Why on earth do you think that? ” or “What could possibly lead you to that conclusion? ” Show your reader that your opinion is well founded and supported by experience, knowledge, logical arguments, the work of experts, or reasoned examples and provide vivid, unique details. Here are illustrations of some rhetorical strategies you can use to develop ideas in paragraphs and essays. They may serve as prompts to help you generate ideas. Give examples Examples that develop a point make writing interesting and informative. Truman (president of the United States 1945–53) as a young boy follows an account of his happy childhood. It begins with a topic sentence that announces the controlling idea: “Yet life had its troubles and woes.” The author then gives examples of some “troubles and woes” that young Harry faced. Beginning with a generalization and supporting it with specific illustrative details is a common method of organizing a paragraph known as deductive organization. On the summer day when his Grandfather Truman died, three-year-old Harry had rushed to the bed to pull at the old man’s beard, trying desperately to wake him. Climbing on a chair afterward, in an attempt to comb his hair 31 32 2d Eight Examples of Paragraph Development in front of a mirror, he toppled over backward and broke his collarbone. Another time he would have choked to death on a peach stone had his mother not responded in a flash and decisively, pushing the stone down his throat with her finger, instead of trying to pull it out. Later, when Grandpa Young [Harry’s mother’s father] lay sick in bed and the little boy approached cautiously to inquire how he was feeling, the old pioneer, fixing him with a wintry stare, said, “How are you feeling? You’re the one I’m worried about.” —David Mc Cullough, Truman In addition, you may decide to illustrate an idea in your text by using a visual image as an example. Tell a story Choose a pattern of organization that readers will easily grasp. Organize the events in a story chronologically so that readers can follow the sequence. In the following paragraph, the writer tells a story that leads to the point that people with disabilities often face ignorance and insensitivity. Note that she uses inductive organization, beginning with background information and the specific details of the story in chronological order and ending with a generalization. Jonathan is an articulate, intelligent, thirty-five-year-old man who has used a wheelchair since he became a paraplegic when he was twenty years old. He recalls taking an able bodied woman out to dinner at a nice restaurant. When the waitress came to take their order, she patronizingly asked his date, “And what would he like to eat for dinner? ” At the end of the meal, the waitress presented Jonathan’s date with the check and thanked her for her patronage. Although it may be hard to believe the insensitivity of the waitress, this incident is not an isolated one. Rather, such an experience is a common one for persons with disabilities. Braithwaite, “Viewing Persons with Disabilities as a Culture” Describe with details appealing to the senses To help readers see and experience what you feel and experience, describe people, places, scenes, and objects by using sensory details that re-create those people, places, scenes, or objects for your readers. In the following paragraph from a memoir about growing up to love food, Ruth Reichl tells how she spent days working at a summer camp in France and thinking about eating. However, she does much more than say, “The food was always delicious” and much more than “I looked forward to the delicious bread, coffee, and morning snacks.” Reichl appeals to our senses of sight, smell, touch, and taste. We get a picture of the Eight Examples of Paragraph Development 2d campers, we smell the baking bread, we see and almost taste the jam, we smell and taste the coffee, and we feel the crustiness of the rolls. When we woke up in the morning the smell of baking bread was wafting through the trees. By the time we had gotten our campers out of bed, their faces washed and their shirts tucked in, the aroma had become maddeningly seductive. We walked into the dining room to devour hot bread slathered with country butter and topped with homemade plum jam so filled with fruit it made each slice look like a tart. —Ruth Reichl, Tender at the Bone: Growing Up at the Table Develop a point by providing facts and statistics The following paragraph supports with facts and statistics the assertion made in its first sentence (the topic sentence) that the North grew more than the South in the years before the Civil War. We stuck our faces into the bowls of café au lait, inhaling the sweet, bitter, peculiarly French fragrance, and Georges or Jean or one of the other male counselors would say, for the hundredth time, “On mange pas comme ça à Paris.” Two hours later we had a “gouter,” a snack of chocolate bars stuffed into fresh, crusty rolls. While southerners tended their fields, the North grew. In 1800, half the nation’s five million people lived in the South. Of the nine largest cities, only New Orleans was located in the lower South. Meanwhile, a tenth of the goods manufactured in America came from southern mills and factories. There were one hundred piano makers in New York alone in 1852. In 1846, there was not a single book publisher in New Orleans; even the city guidebook was printed in Manhattan. Ward, The Civil War: An Illustrated History Here, too, visuals such as tables, charts, and graphs would help present data succinctly and dramatically. Define key terms Sometimes, writers clarify and develop a topic by defining a key term, even if it is not an unusual term. Often, they will explain what class something fits into and how it differs from others in its class; for example, “A duckbilled platypus is a mammal that has webbed feet and lays eggs.” In his book on diaries, Thomas Mallon begins by providing an extended definition of his basic terms. He does not want readers to misunderstand him because they wonder what the differences between a diary and a journal might be. 33 34 2d Eight Examples of Paragraph Development The first thing we should try to get straight is what to call them. “What’s the difference between a diary and a journal? ” is one of the questions people interested in these books ask. They’re both rooted in the idea of dailiness, but perhaps because of journal’s links to the newspaper trade and diary’s to dear, the latter seems more intimate than the former.

date: 25-Aug-2021 22:02next


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